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Author Kupprat, F.; Holker, F.; Knopf, K.; Preuer, T.; Kloas, W.
Title Innate immunity, oxidative stress, and body indices of Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis after two weeks of exposure to artificial light at night Type Journal Article
Year 2021 Publication Journal of Fish Biology Abbreviated Journal J Fish Biol
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals; Alan; fish; freshwater; light pollution; non-specific immune system; skyglow
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) can disrupt biological rhythms of fish and other vertebrates by changing the light information of the nocturnal environment. Disrupted biorhythms can impair the immune system of vertebrates as it has been shown for conditions with continuous illumination or long-day photoperiod in many vertebrates, including fish. However, this has not been shown so far under typical ALAN scenarios with high light intensities during day and low light intensities at night. Therefore, we measured proxies for the innate immune system and oxidative stress as well as body indices of Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis under a wide range of intensities of nocturnal illumination. We found no changes in parameters of the innate immune system and no significant changes in proxies for oxidative stress after two-week exposures to nocturnal illuminance ranging from 0.01 lx to 1 lx in one experiment or from 1 lx to 100 lx in a second experiment. A decrease in the hepatosomatic index at the highest tested light intensity of 100 lx compared to the dark control was the only significant difference in all parameters among treatments. After two weeks of exposure, ALAN does not seem to seriously challenge the innate immune system and seems to cause less oxidative stress than expected. Our results contradict findings from other studies applying continuous illumination or long-day photoperiod and highlight the importance of further research in this field. Since ALAN represents a sustained modulation of the environment that may have cumulative effects over time, long-term studies are required for a better understanding of how ALAN modulates the health of fish. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address Faculty of Life Sciences, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany
Corporate Author Thesis
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-1112 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:33587288 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3423
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Author Krupiński, R.
Title Simulation and Analysis of Floodlighting Based on 3D Computer Graphics Type Journal Article
Year 2021 Publication Energies Abbreviated Journal Energies
Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 1042
Keywords Lighting; Planning
Abstract The paper presents the opportunities to apply computer graphics in an object floodlighting design process and in an analysis of object illumination. The course of object floodlighting design has been defined based on a virtual three-dimensional geometric model. The problems related to carrying out the analysis of lighting, calculating the average illuminance, luminance levels and determining the illuminated object surface area are also described. These parameters are directly tied with the calculations of the Floodlighting Utilisation Factor, and therefore, with the energy efficiency of the design as well as the aspects of light pollution of the natural environment. The paper shows how high an impact of the geometric model of the object has on the accuracy of photometric calculations. Very often the model contains the components that should not be taken into account in the photometric calculations. The research on what influence the purity of the geometric mesh of the illuminated object has on the obtained results is presented. It shows that the errors can be significant, but it is possible to optimise the 3D object model appropriately in order to receive the precise results. For the example object presented in this paper, removing the planes that do not constitute its external surface has caused a two-fold increase in the average illuminance and average luminance. This is dangerous because a designer who wants to achieve a specific average luminance level in their design without optimizing the model will obtain the luminance values that will actually be much higher.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1996-1073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3422
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Author Khan, S.; Yong, V.W.; Xue, M.
Title Circadian disruption in mice through chronic jetlag-like conditions modulates molecular profiles of cancer in nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex Type Journal Article
Year 2021 Publication Carcinogenesis Abbreviated Journal Carcinogenesis
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals; Brain activity; Cancer pathways; Chronic jetlag (CJL); Metabolic pathways; Shiftwork
Abstract Biological rhythms regulate physiological activities. Shiftwork disrupts normal circadian rhythms and may increase the risk of cancer through unknown mechanisms. To mimic environmental light/dark changes encountered by shift workers, a protocol called “chronic jet lag (CJL)” induced by repeatedly shifting light-dark cycles has been used. Here, we subjected mice to CJL by advancing light-dark cycle by 6 hours every 2 days, and conducted RNA sequencing to analyze the expression profile and molecular signature in the brain areas of prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. We also performed positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to monitor changes related to glucose metabolism in brain. Our results reveal systematic reprogramming of gene expression associated with cancer related pathways and metabolic pathways in prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. PET imaging indicates that glucose uptake level was significantly reduced in whole brain as well as the individual brain regions. Moreover, qPCR analysis describes that the expression levels of cancer related genes were altered in prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Overall, these results suggest a molecular and metabolic link with CJL mediated cancer risk, and generate hypotheses on how CJL increases the susceptibility to cancer.
Address Henan Medical Key Laboratory of Translational Cerebrovascular Diseases, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0143-3334 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:33608694 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3421
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Author Forsburg, Z.R.; Guzman, A.; Gabor, C.R.
Title Artificial light at light (ALAN) affects the stress physiology but not the behavior or growth of Rana berlandieri and Bufo valliceps Type Journal Article
Year 2021 Publication Environmental Pollution Abbreviated Journal Environmental Pollution
Volume in press Issue Pages 116775
Keywords Animals
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) alters the natural light dark patterns in ecosystems. ALAN can have a suite of effects on community structure and is a driver of evolutionary processes that influences a range of behavioral and physiological traits. Our understanding of possible effects of ALAN across species amphibians is lacking and research is warranted as ALAN could contribute to stress and declines of amphibian populations, particularly in urban areas. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to constant light or pulsed ALAN would physiologically stress Rio Grande leopard frog (Rana berlandieri) and Gulf Coast toad (Bufo valliceps) tadpoles. We reared tadpoles under constant or pulsed (on and off again) ALAN for 14 days and measured corticosterone release rates over time using a non-invasive water-borne hormone protocol. ALAN treatments did not affect behavior or growth. Tadpoles of both species had higher corticosterone (cort) release rates after 14 days of constant light exposure. Leopard frog tadpoles had lower cort release rates after exposure to pulsed ALAN while toad tadpoles had higher cort release rates. These results suggest that short-term exposure to constant or pulsed light at night may contribute to stress in tadpoles but that each species differentially modulated their cort response to ALAN exposure and a subsequent stressor. This flexibility in the upregulation and downregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis response may indicate an alternative mechanism for diminishing the deleterious effects of chronic stress. Nonetheless, ALAN should be considered in management and conservation plans for amphibians.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3420
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Author Challéat, S.; Barré, K.; Laforge, A.; Lapostolle, D.; Franchomme, M.; Sirami, C.; Le Viol, I.; Milian, J.; Kerbiriou, C.
Title Grasping darkness: the dark ecological network as a social-ecological framework to limit the impacts of light pollution on biodiversity Type Journal Article
Year 2021 Publication Ecology and Society Abbreviated Journal E&S
Volume 26 Issue 1 Pages
Keywords Darkness; Planning; Ecology
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is nowadays recognized as a major anthropogenic pressure on the environment on a global scale and as such is called light pollution. Through its attractive or deterrent effects, and its disruption of the biological clock for many animal and plant taxa, ALAN is increasingly recognized as a major threat to global biodiversity, which ultimately alters the amount, the quality, and the connectivity of available habitats for taxa. Biodiversity conservation tools should, therefore, include ALAN spatial and temporal effects. The ecological network, i.e., the physical and functional combination of natural elements that promote habitat connectivity, provides a valuable framework for that purpose. Understood as a social-ecological framework, it offers the opportunity to take into account the multiple uses of nocturnal spaces and times, by humans and nonhumans alike. Here we present the concept of “dark ecological network.” We show this concept is able to grasp the effects of ALAN in terms of habitat disturbances and integrates temporal dimensions of ecological processes into biodiversity conservation planning. Moreover, it is also intended to trivialize the practices of darkness protection by turning them into the ordinary practices of land use planning. From an operational point of view, the challenge is to translate the levers for reducing ALAN-induced effects into a political method for its “territorialization.” To achieve this objective, we propose a course of action that consists of building an interdisciplinary repertoire of contextualized knowledge (e.g., impacts on wildlife, human/lightscape relationship, existing legal tools, etc.), in order to deduce from it a number of practical supports for the governance of the dark ecological network in response to societal and ecological issues.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1708-3087 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3419
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