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Author Ivan, K.; Holobâcă, I.-H.; Benedek, J.; Török, I.
Title VIIRS Nighttime Light Data for Income Estimation at Local Level Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 12 Issue 18 Pages 2950
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract The aim of the paper is to develop a model for the real-time estimation of local level income data by combining machine learning, Earth Observation, and Geographic Information System. More exactly, we estimated the income per capita by help of a machine learning model for 46 cities with more than 50,000 inhabitants, based on the National Polar-orbiting Partnership–Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (NPP-VIIRS) nighttime satellite images from 2012–2018. For the automation of calculation, a new ModelBuilder type tool was developed within the ArcGIS software called EO-Incity (Earth Observation–Income city). The sum of light (SOL) data extracted by means of the EO-Incity tool and the observed income data were integrated in an algorithm within the MATLAB software in order to calculate a transfer equation and the average error. The results achieved were subsequently reintegrated in EO-Incity and used for the estimation of the income value at local level. The regression analyses highlighted a stable and strong relationship between SOL and income for the analyzed cities. The EO-Incity tool and the machine learning model proved to be efficient in the real-time estimation of the income at local level. When integrated in the information systems specific for smart cities, they can serve as a support for decision-making in order to fight poverty and reduce social inequalities.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3138
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Author Jawaad Atif, M.; Amin, B.; Imran Ghani, M.; Ali, M.; Liu, X.; Zhang, Y.; Cheng, Z.
Title Allium sativum L. (Garlic) bulb enlargement as influenced by differential combinations of photoperiod and temperature Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Food Chemistry Abbreviated Journal Food Chemistry
Volume in press Issue Pages 127991
Keywords Plants
Abstract Photoperiod and temperature are vital environmental factors that regulate plant developmental processes. However, the roles of these factors in garlic bulb enlargement are unclear. In this report, responses of garlic bulb morphology and physiology to combinations of photoperiod (light/dark: 10/14 h, 12/12 h, 14/10 h) and temperature (light/dark: 25/18°C, 30/20°C) were investigated. For garlic cultivar G103, bulb characteristics, phytohormones (IAA, ABA, ZT, tZR, JA), allicin and phenolic acids (p-coumaric and p-hydroxybenzoic) were highest under a photoperiod of 14 h at 30°C. Maximum GA was observed under 14 h+30°C for cv. G2011-5. Maximum caffeic, ferulic and vanillic acids were detected for cv. G2011-5 at 14 h+30°C, 12 h+25°C and 14 h+25°C, respectively. Flavonoids (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin) were not detected in this trial. This is the first report describing the impact of long periods of light duration and higher temperatures on garlic morphology, phytohormones, phenolic acids and allicin content.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0308-8146 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3137
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Author Gatford, K.L.; Kennaway, D.J.; Liu, H.; Kleemann, D.O.; Kuchel, T.R.; Varcoe, T.J.
Title Simulated shift work disrupts maternal circadian rhythms and metabolism, and increases gestation length in sheep Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication The Journal of Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Physiol
Volume 597 Issue 7 Pages 1889-1904
Keywords Animals; *Circadian Rhythm; Female; Fetal Development; Pregnancy; *Pregnancy, Animal/physiology; Pregnancy, Multiple; Sheep/*physiology; *Shift Work Schedule; Sleep/*physiology; *circadian rhythms; *fetus; *maternal; *pregnancy; *sheep; *shift work
Abstract KEY POINTS: Shift work impairs metabolic health, although its effects during pregnancy are not well understood We evaluated the effects of a simulated shift work protocol for one-third, two-thirds or all of pregnancy on maternal and pregnancy outcomes in sheep. Simulated shift work changed the timing of activity, disrupted hormonal and cellular rhythms, and impaired maternal glucose tolerance during early pregnancy. Gestation length was increased in twin pregnancies, whereas singleton lambs were lighter at a given gestational age if mothers were subjected to shift work conditions in the first one-third of pregnancy. Exposure to rotating night and day shifts, even if only in early pregnancy, may adversely affect maternal metabolic and pregnancy outcomes. ABSTRACT: Shift workers are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and obesity; however, the impact during pregnancy on maternal metabolism is unknown. Using a large animal model, we assessed the impact of simulated shift work (SSW) exposure during pregnancy on maternal circadian rhythms, glucose tolerance and pregnancy outcomes. Following mating, ewes were randomly allocated to a control photoperiod (CON 12 h light, 12 h dark) or to SSW, where the timing of light exposure and food presentation was reversed twice each week for one-third, two-thirds or all of pregnancy. Maternal behaviour followed SSW cycles with increased activity during light exposure and feeding. Melatonin rhythms resynchronized within 2 days of the photoperiod shift, whereas peripheral circadian rhythms were arrhythmic. SSW impaired glucose tolerance (+29%, P = 0.019) and increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (+32%, P = 0.018) in ewes with a singleton fetus in early but not late gestation. SSW exposure did not alter rates of miscarriage or stillbirth, although it extended gestation length in twin pregnancies (+2.4 days, P = 0.032). Relative to gestational age, birth weight was lower in singleton progeny of SSW than CON ewes (-476 g, P = 0.016). These results have implications for the large number of women currently engaged in shift work, and further studies are required to determine progeny health impacts.
Address Robinson Research Institute, Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-3751 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30671970; PMCID:PMC6441904 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3136
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Author Gatford, K.L.; Kennaway, D.J.; Liu, H.; Schultz, C.G.; Wooldridge, A.L.; Kuchel, T.R.; Varcoe, T.J.
Title Simulated shift work during pregnancy does not impair progeny metabolic outcomes in sheep Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication The Journal of Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Physiol
Volume in press Issue Pages in press
Keywords Animals; developmental programming; maternal; metabolism; progeny; sheep; shift work
Abstract KEY POINTS: Maternal shift work increases the risk of pregnancy complications, although its effects on progeny health after birth were not clear. We evaluated the impact of a simulated shift work protocol for one third, two thirds, or all of pregnancy on metabolic health of sheep progeny. Simulated shift work had no effect on growth, body size, body composition or glucose tolerance in pre-pubertal or young adult progeny. Glucose stimulated insulin secretion was reduced in adult female progeny and insulin sensitivity was increased in adult female singleton progeny. The results of this study does not support the hypothesis that maternal shift work exposure impairs metabolic health of progeny in altricial species ABSTRACT: Disrupted maternal circadian rhythms, such as those experienced during shift work, are associated with impaired progeny metabolism in rodents. The effects of disrupted maternal circadian rhythms on progeny metabolism have not been assessed in altricial, non-litter bearing species. We therefore assessed postnatal growth from birth to adulthood, and body composition, glucose tolerance, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in pre-pubertal and young adult progeny of sheep exposed to control conditions (CON: 10 males, 10 females) or to a simulated shift work (SSW) protocol for the first 1/3 (SSW0-7: 11 males, 9 females), the first 2/3 (SSW0-14: 8 males, 11 females), or all (SSW0-21: 8 males, 13 females) of pregnancy. Progeny growth did not differ between maternal treatments. In pre-pubertal progeny (12-14 weeks of age), adiposity, glucose tolerance and insulin secretion during an intravenous glucose tolerance test and insulin sensitivity did not differ between maternal treatments. Similarly, in young adult progeny (12-14 months of age), food intake, adiposity and glucose tolerance did not differ between maternal treatments. At this age, however, insulin secretion in response to a glucose bolus was 30% lower in female progeny in the combined SSW groups compared to control females (P = 0.031), and insulin sensitivity of SSW0-21 singleton females was 236% that of CON singleton female progeny (P = 0.025). At least in this model, maternal SSW does not impair progeny metabolic health, with some evidence of greater insulin action in female young adult progeny. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address Basil Hetzel Research Institute for Translational Health Research, Adelaide, South Australia, 5011, Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-3751 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32918750 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3135
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Author Elvidge, C.D.; Ghosh, T.; Hsu, F.-C.; Zhizhin, M.; Bazilian, M.
Title The Dimming of Lights in China during the COVID-19 Pandemic Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 12 Issue 17 Pages 2851
Keywords Remote Sensing; VIIRS; Day-night band (DNB); Nighttime lights; COVID-19; Pandemic; VIIRS-DNB
Abstract A satellite survey of the cumulative radiant emissions from electric lighting across China reveals a large radiance decline in lighting from December 2019 to February 2020—the peak of the lockdown established to suppress the spread of COVID-19 infections. To illustrate the changes, an analysis was also conducted on a reference set from a year prior to the pandemic. In the reference period, the majority (62%) of China’s population lived in administrative units that became brighter in March 2019 relative to December 2018. The situation reversed in February 2020, when 82% of the population lived in administrative units where lighting dimmed as a result of the pandemic. The dimming has also been demonstrated with difference images for the reference and pandemic image pairs, scattergrams, and a nightly temporal profile. The results indicate that it should be feasible to monitor declines and recovery in economic activity levels using nighttime lighting as a proxy.
Address Earth Observation Group, Payne Institute for Public Policy, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401, USA; celvidge(at)mines.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher MDPI Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 3134
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