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Author Bará, S.; Falchi, F.; Furgoni, R.; Lima, R.C.
Title Fast Fourier-transform calculation of artificial night sky brightness maps Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 240 Issue Pages 106658
Keywords Skyglow; Light pollution; Atmospheric optics; Photometry; Radiometry; Fourier transforms
Abstract Light pollution poses a growing threat to optical astronomy, in addition to its detrimental impacts on the natural environment, the intangible heritage of humankind related to the contemplation of the starry sky and, potentially, on human health. The computation of maps showing the spatial distribution of several light pollution related functions (e.g. the anthropogenic zenithal night sky brightness, or the average brightness of the celestial hemisphere) is a key tool for light pollution monitoring and control, providing the scientific rationale for the adoption of informed decisions on public lighting and astronomical site preservation. The calculation of such maps from satellite radiance data for wide regions of the planet with sub-kilometric spatial resolution often implies a huge amount of basic pixel operations, requiring in many cases extremely large computation times. In this paper we show that, using adequate geographical projections, a wide set of light pollution map calculations can be reframed in terms of two-dimensional convolutions that can be easily evaluated using conventional fast Fourier-transform (FFT) algorithms, with typical computation times smaller than 10^-6 s per output pixel.
Address Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain; salva.bara(at)usc.es
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 2782
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Author Jiang, J.; He, Y.; Kou, H.; Ju, Z.; Gao, X.; Zhao, H.
Title The effects of artificial light at night on Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus): Behavioral rhythm disruption, melatonin suppression and intestinal microbiota alterations Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Ecological Indicators Abbreviated Journal Ecological Indicators
Volume 108 Issue Pages 105702
Keywords Animals; Artificial light at night; Eurasian tree sparrow; Melatonin; Intestinal microbiota
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) or light pollution is rapidly widespread with fast urbanization and becomes an obvious environmental disturbance. Recent studies showed ALAN has multiple negative impacts on a wide range of species including bird biological rhythm disruption, behavioral and physiological disturbance and hormone secretion disorder. However, its effects on bird gut microbiota are scarcely studied. In this study, we used Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus), a widely distributed and locally abundant bird species in both urban and rural areas of China to examine the effects of ALAN on locomotor activity rhythm and melatonin secretion, and species diversity and community structure of intestinal microbiota by simulating urban and rural night light environment. Our results showed ALAN strongly affected circadian rhythm of locomotor activity with earlier start of activity before light-on and later rest after light-off. Moreover, ALAN significantly suppressed melatonin release. Last but not least, ALAN profoundly affected taxonomic compositions, species diversity and community structure of intestinal microbiota of birds. We concluded that ALAN may cause bird health damage by disrupting circadian rhythm, inhibiting melatonin release and altering intestinal microbiota. Melatonin hormone level and intestinal microbiota diversity may be important bioindicators for light pollution.
Address College of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119, China
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1470160X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 2781
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Author Hamacher, D.W.; De Napoli, K.; Mott, B.
Title Whitening the Sky: light pollution as a form of cultural genocide Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Dark Sky Studies Abbreviated Journal J of Dark Sky Studies
Volume 1 Issue in press Pages
Keywords Society; Blue-rich light sources; indigenous knowledge; aboriginal australia; torres strait islanders; decolonizing methodologies
Abstract Light pollution is actively destroying our ability to see the stars and disconnecting people from their deep-time connection to the sky, acting as a form of ongoing cultural and ecological genocide for Indigenous people around the world. Many traditional knowledge systems are based on the stars and peoples' ablity to observe and interpret them for a range of practical, social, and scientific purposes is critical. Efforts to reduce, minimise, or eliminate light pollution are being achieved with varying degrees of success, but the increased use of blue-light emitting LEDs as a cost-effective solution is worsening problems related to human health, wildlife, and astronomical heritage for the benefit of capitalistic economic growth. We provide a brief overview illustrating some of the important connections that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people maintain with the stars, as well as the worsening damage growing light pollution is causing to this ancient knowledge. We propose a transdisciplinary approach to solving the issues of growing light pollution, using a foundation based on Indigenous philosophies and decolonising methodologies.
Address ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics in Three Dimensions (ASTRO-3D), School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 30130, Australia; duane.hamacher@unimelb.edu.au
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher University of Utah Place of Publication USA Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 2780
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Author Bielli, A.; Alfaro-Shigueto, J.; Doherty, P.D.; Godley, B.J.; Ortiz, C.; Pasara, A.; Wang, J.H.; Mangel, J.C.
Title An illuminating idea to reduce bycatch in the Peruvian small-scale gillnet fishery Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation
Volume in press Issue Pages 108277
Keywords Animals; oceans; bycatch; artificial illumination; bycatch reduction technologies
Abstract Found in the coastal waters of all continents, gillnets are the largest component of small-scale fisheries for many countries. Numerous studies show that these fisheries often have high bycatch rates of threatened marine species such as sea turtles, small cetaceans and seabirds, resulting in possible population declines of these non-target groups. However, few solutions to reduce gillnet bycatch have been developed. Recent bycatch reduction technologies (BRTs) use sensory cues to alert non-target species to the presence of fishing gear. In this study we deployed light emitting diodes (LEDs) – a visual cue – on the floatlines of paired gillnets (control vs illuminated net) during 864 fishing sets on small-scale vessels departing from three Peruvian ports between 2015 and 2018. Bycatch probability per set for sea turtles, cetaceans and seabirds as well as catch per unit effort (CPUE) of target species were analysed for illuminated and control nets using a generalised linear mixed-effects model (GLMM). For illuminated nets, bycatch probability per set was reduced by up to 74.4 % for sea turtles and 70.8 % for small cetaceans in comparison to non-illuminated, control nets. For seabirds, nominal BPUEs decreased by 84.0 % in the presence of LEDs. Target species CPUE was not negatively affected by the presence of LEDs. This study highlights the efficacy of net illumination as a multi-taxa BRT for small-scale gillnet fisheries in Peru. These results are promising given the global ubiquity of small-scale net fisheries, the relatively low cost of LEDs and the current lack of alternate solutions to bycatch.
Address Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9FE, UK; bielli.alessandra(at)gmail.com
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2779
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Author Syposz, M.; Gonçalves, F.; Carty, M.; Hoppitt, W.; Manco, F.
Title Factors influencing Manx Shearwater grounding on the west coast of Scotland Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Ibis Abbreviated Journal Ibis
Volume 160 Issue 4 Pages 846-854
Keywords Animals
Abstract Grounding of thousands of newly fledged petrels and shearwaters (family Procellariidae) in built‐up areas due to artificial light is a global problem. Due to their anatomy these grounded birds find it difficult to take off from built‐up areas and many fall victim to predation, cars, dehydration or starvation. This research investigated a combination of several factors that may influence the number of Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus groundings in a coastal village of Scotland located close to a nesting site for this species. A model was developed that used meteorological variables and moon cycle to predict the daily quantity of birds that were recovered on the ground. The model, explaining 46.32% of the variance of the data, revealed how new moon and strong onshore winds influence grounding. To a lesser extent, visibility conditions can also have an effect on grounding probabilities. The analysis presented in this study can improve rescue campaigns of not only Manx Shearwaters but also other species attracted to the light pollution by predicting conditions leading to an increase in the number of groundings. It could also inform local authorities when artificial light intensity needs to be reduced.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0019-1019 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2778
Permanent link to this record