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Author Xiao, Q.; James, P.; Breheny, P.; Jia, P.; Park, Y.; Zhang, D.; Fisher, J.A.; Ward, M.H.; Jones, R.R.
Title Outdoor light at night and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the NIH-AARP diet and health study Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication International Journal of Cancer Abbreviated Journal Int J Cancer
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Human Health; circadian disruption; outdoor light at night; postmenopausal breast cancer; prospective cohort
Abstract Circadian disruption may play a role in breast carcinogenesis. Previous studies reported relationships between outdoor light at night (LAN) and the breast cancer risk, but their findings are mixed. There is also a need to examine LAN and breast cancer incidence according to different individual and environmental characteristics to identify subpopulations at greater risk associated with LAN exposure. We studied residential outdoor LAN estimated from satellite imagery at baseline (1996) in relation to postmenopausal breast cancer incidence over ~16 years of follow-up in 186 981 postmenopausal women including 12 318 incident postmenopausal breast cancer cases in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the relationship between quintiles of LAN and postmenopausal breast cancer risk, overall and by hormone receptor status and cancer stage. We found that when compared to women in the lowest quintile of baseline LAN, those in the highest quintile had a 10% increase in postmenopausal breast cancer risk (HR (95% CI), 1.10 (1.02, 1.18), P-trend, .002). The association appeared to be stronger for estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer (1.12 [1.02, 1.24], .007) than for ER-negative cancer (1.07 [0.85, 1.34], .66). Our findings also suggested that the relationship between LAN and breast cancer risk may differ by individual characteristics, such as smoking, alcohol drinking, sleep duration and BMI, and neighborhood environment. In conclusion, our study suggests that higher outdoor LAN exposure may be a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer.
Address Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0020-7136 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32488897 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2976
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Author Vandersteen, J.; Kark, S.; Sorrell, K.; Levin, N.
Title Quantifying the Impact of Light Pollution on Sea Turtle Nesting Using Ground-Based Imagery Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 12 Issue 11 Pages 1785
Keywords Animals; Skyglow
Abstract Remote sensing of anthropogenic light has substantial potential to quantify light pollution levels and understand its impact on a wide range of taxa. Currently, the use of space-borne night-time sensors for measuring the actual light pollution that animals experience is limited. This is because most night-time satellite imagery and space-borne sensors measure the light that is emitted or reflected upwards, rather than horizontally, which is often the light that is primarily perceived by animals. Therefore, there is an important need for developing and testing ground-based remote sensing techniques and methods. In this study, we aimed to address this gap by examining the potential of ground photography to quantify the actual light pollution perceived by animals, using sea turtles as a case study. We conducted detailed ground measurements of night-time brightness around the coast of Heron Island, a coral cay in the southern Great Barrier Reef of Australia, and an important sea turtle rookery, using a calibrated DSLR Canon camera with an 8 mm fish-eye lens. The resulting hemispheric photographs were processed using the newly developed Sky Quality Camera (SQC) software to extract brightness metrics. Furthermore, we quantified the factors determining the spatial and temporal variation in night-time brightness as a function of environmental factors (e.g., moon light, cloud cover, and land cover) and anthropogenic features (e.g., artificial light sources and built-up areas). We found that over 80% of the variation in night-time brightness was explained by the percentage of the moon illuminated, moon altitude, as well as cloud cover. Anthropogenic and geographic factors (e.g., artificial lighting and the percentage of visible sky) were especially important in explaining the remaining variation in measured brightness under moonless conditions. Night-time brightness variables, land cover, and rock presence together explained over 60% of the variation in sea turtle nest locations along the coastline of Heron Island, with more nests found in areas of lower light pollution. The methods we developed enabled us to overcome the limitations of commonly used ground/space borne remote sensing techniques, which are not well suited for measuring the light pollution to which animals are exposed. The findings of this study demonstrate the applicability of ground-based remote sensing techniques in accurately and efficiently measuring night-time brightness to enhance our understanding of ecological light pollution.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2975
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Author Factors Influencing Quality of Sleep among Critically Ill Patients in Selected Hospitals in Western Kenya
Title Factors Influencing Quality of Sleep among Critically Ill Patients in Selected Hospitals in Western Kenya Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Health, Medicine and Nursing Abbreviated Journal
Volume 56 Issue Pages
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Sleep is essential for rest, repair, well-being, and survival of the patient. Sleep quality varies in critically ill patients and is measured by patient's satisfaction of the sleep experience, integrating aspects of sleep initiation, sleep maintenance, quantity of sleep and the refreshment upon awakening. Altered sleep is a common problem experienced by patients in critical care units. This alterations may lead to physiological and psychological dysfunctions that may affect recovery. Critically ill patients frequently experience poor sleep, characterized by frequent disruptions and loss of circadian rhythms. This study investigated factors influencing the quality of sleep among critically ill patients in hospitals in Western Kenya. A cross-sectional descriptive research design was used to examine these factors. A total of 142 patients above 18 years who were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and those transferred from the ICU to the general ward during the study period were conveniently selected for participation in the study. For triangulation, 10 nurses who worked in the ICU also participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from patients while a checklist was used to observe nursing interventions. Descriptive statistical techniques used were frequencies and percentages, while chi-square was used with the p-value set at 0.05 to test the association between factors and quality of sleep. The study results showed that frequent, nursing care activities 96.5% (n=137) noise from ventilator alarms 83.1% (n=118), feeling thirsty 57.7% (n= 82) and pain 52.8% (n=75) were among the major factors influencing the quality of sleep in ICU. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed patient factors significantly associated with quality sleep were age p=.006 and marital status p=.02, environmental factors significantly affecting sleep were presence of light at night with a p <0.0001 and noise from alarms p=.01. Physiological factors included feeling of thirst and hunger (p=0.03). This study recommends optimal use of analgesics and sedatives for pain management, adequate fluid replacement and hydration, noise reduction strategies, including minimizing monitor and ventilator alarms, reducing staff and telephone conversations and use of ear plugs for patients in ICU. Further, nurses should implement clustered procedures to reduce disruption of sleep among critically ill patients.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial (down) 2974
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Author Zahra, H. S., Iqbal, A., Hassan, S. H., Shakir, H. A., Khan, M., Irfan, M., ... & Ali, S.
Title Epigenetics: A Bridge between Artificial Light at Night and Breast Cancer Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Punjab University Journal of Zoology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 34 Issue 2 Pages 231-238
Keywords Review; Human Health
Abstract The second most frequent cancer all over the world is breast cancer (BC). It is

reported that only about 10% BC cases are attributed due to inherited genetic mutations while remaining 90% cancer cases are associated with environmental factors. Artificial light at night (ALAN) is considered one of the major environmental risk factors for breast cancer. It inhibits production of melatonin (MLT) from pineal gland which results in abnormal epigenetic changes that relates with an increased risk of BC. The most important ALAN-mediated epigenetic changes include methylation of DNA and acetylation of histone, which are significant for growth, development and progression of BC. DNA hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands inhibits transcriptional activity by methyltransferase enzyme which results in inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (TSG), while in hypomethylation, demethyltransferase enzyme causes the activation of oncogenes by promoting transcriptional activity. Contrary to DNA methylation, histone acetylation and deacetylation results in chromatin opening and closing, respectively; leading to transcriptional activation and inactivation of genes. Histone acetylation has been frequently detected in oncogenes while histone deacetylation in TSG. Collective data from various studies demonstrate that DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation of TSG lead to inactivation of TSG and activation of oncogenes. The purpose of this review is to discuss the evidence based relationship between ALAN and oncogenes expression through epigenetic remodeling by DNA methylation and histone acetylation.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial (down) 2973
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Author Dominoni, D.M., Halfwerk, W., Baird, E. et al.
Title Why conservation biology can benefit from sensory ecology Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Nature Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal
Volume 4 Issue Pages 502-511
Keywords Conservation; Animals; Vision
Abstract Global expansion of human activities is associated with the introduction of novel stimuli, such as anthropogenic noise, artificial lights and chemical agents. Progress in documenting the ecological effects of sensory pollutants is weakened by sparse knowledge of the mechanisms underlying these effects. This severely limits our capacity to devise mitigation measures. Here, we integrate knowledge of animal sensory ecology, physiology and life history to articulate three perceptual mechanisms—masking, distracting and misleading—that clearly explain how and why anthropogenic sensory pollutants impact organisms. We then link these three mechanisms to ecological consequences and discuss their implications for conservation. We argue that this framework can reveal the presence of ‘sensory danger zones’, hotspots of conservation concern where sensory pollutants overlap in space and time with an organism’s activity, and foster development of strategic interventions to mitigate the impact of sensory pollutants. Future research that applies this framework will provide critical insight to preserve the natural sensory world.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial (down) 2972
Permanent link to this record