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Author Schroer, S., Häffner, E., & Hölker, F.
Title Impact of artificial illumination on the development of a leafmining moth in urban trees Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication International Journal of Sustainable Lighting Abbreviated Journal
Volume 21 Issue 1 Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Light emission from street lighting or other light sources alters the living conditions for organisms in urban areas. Nowadays, the impact of light at night (ALAN) on urban plants and their trophic environment is not well understood. To gain more insight about herbivore plant’s interaction when exposed to ALAN, outdoor and greenhouse tests were conducted using the horse-chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella, as a test organism due to its adaptive behavior. At the end of the season, the development of chestnut tree leaves and the leafminer were measured at illuminated versus non-illuminated sites in the city of Berlin and the rural area of Brandenburg. Illuminated leaves were larger than those grown in darker rural areas and, extended larval activity was recorded. Additionally, in the greenhouse, infested chestnut seedlings were exposed to two different light regimes; one treatment provided continuous illumination and the other short daylight conditions. After only one week, the mine size was lower on illuminated seedlings, presumably due to reduced leaf senescence. The leafminer developed a lower proportion of diapausing pupae and a higher proportion of free pupae, which leads to a further generation within the season. The results indicate a strong impact of ALAN on plant metabolism, a secondary effect on leafminer development and its larval activity. For urban trees, the consequence might be an increased herbivore / parasite pressure. For herbivores and parasites less adapted to winter damages than the invasive leafminer a reduced dormancy due to direct or indirect effects of ALAN could even threat the population.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial (down) 2634
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Author Treanor, P. J.
Title A simple propagation law for artificial night-sky illumination Type Journal Article
Year 1973 Publication The Observatory Abbreviated Journal
Volume 93 Issue Pages 117-120
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract The problem of locating new large astronomical observatories in sites which have a suitably dark night sky (artificial excess of the order of omi) is becoming increasingly difficult in Europe and the United States, on account of extensive urban development, the high luminous efficiency of modern discharge lighting, and the scattering of light in an atmosphere contaminated by aerosols. To investigate the artificial illumination of the sky over large regions on the basis of necessarily limited observations, one needs an expression for the zenith brightness produced by towns of known site and distance.

The exact derivation of such a law is exceedingly complex, involving the computation of the radiation transfer in an atmosphere with absorption, multiple scattering, and complicated physical and geometrical parameters. Notwithstanding these difficulties, it is possible to obtain a useful physical insight into the general form of this law by considering a very simplified model, consisting of a homogeneous atmosphere, in which vertical heights are small in relation to the horizontal distances between town and observatory, and which the scattering is limited to a cone of small angle whose axis lies in the direction of the incident beam. The limited scale height and optical thickness of the real atmosphere, and the forward-scattering characteristics of aerosols lend some plausibility to these simplifications.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial (down) 2633
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Author Yun, Hee-Kyung; Choi, Tae-Bong; Kim, Bu-Kyung; Kim, Hoon 윤희경; 최태봉; 김부경; 김훈
Title Study on the Standard Guideline of Environmental Impact Assessment Focusing on Light Pollution 빛공해 분야의 환경영향평가 지침 표준화 연구 Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment (환경영향평가) Abbreviated Journal
Volume 28 Issue 1 Pages 63-70
Keywords Planning
Abstract Artificial lighting is an essential part, but it causes light pollution due to unnecessary or excessive use of light. Light pollution has negative effects such as power waste, adverse health effects, destruction of the ecosystem. But currently, light pollution is managed only post-management. The purpose of this study is to standardize methods of environmental impact assessment focusing on light pollution to effectively manage and reduce the negative effect of areas that may cause light pollution in advance.
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Language Korean Summary Language Original Title
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial (down) 2632
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Author Nicholls, S. K., Casiraghi, L. P., Wang. W., Weber, E. T., & Harrington, M. E.
Title Evidence for Internal Desynchrony Caused by Circadian Clock Resetting Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine Abbreviated Journal
Volume 92 Issue 2 Pages 259-270
Keywords Review; Animals; Human Health
Abstract Circadian disruption has been linked to markers for poor health outcomes in humans and animal models. What is it about circadian disruption that is problematic? One hypothesis is that phase resetting of the circadian system, which occurs in response to changes in environmental timing cues, leads to internal desynchrony within the organism. Internal desynchrony is understood as acute changes in phase relationships between biological rhythms from different cell groups, tissues, or organs within the body. Do we have strong evidence for internal desynchrony associated with or caused by circadian clock resetting? Here we review the literature, highlighting several key studies from measures of gene expression in laboratory rodents. We conclude that current evidence offers strong support for the premise that some protocols for light-induced resetting are associated with internal desynchrony. It is important to continue research to test whether internal desynchrony is necessary and/or sufficient for negative health impact of circadian disruption.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial (down) 2631
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Author Chen, J., & Li, L.
Title Regional Economic Activity Derived From MODIS Data: A Comparison With DMSP/OLS and NPP/VIIRS Nighttime Light Data Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-11
Keywords Remote Sensing; Economics
Abstract Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) and Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (NPP/VIIRS) nighttime light data are the two most commonly used indicators of gross domestic product (GDP) estimation. Few studies explore the potential of daytime satellite data for estimating GDP. This study demonstrates a linear support vector machine (Linear-SVM) model to estimate GDP over Hubei province and Guangdong province, China, in 2013 from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Also, a comparison of MODIS data with DMSP/OLS and NPP/VIIRS nighttime light data was conducted. Results show that the Linear-SVM model (Hubei: R2 = 0.66, 0.71, 0.92; Guangdong: R2 = 0.37, 0.32, 0.67) has better model performance than simple linear regression (R2 = 0.54, 0.59, 0.86; R2 = 0.23, 0.23, 0.63) based on DMSP/OLS nighttime lights, DMSP/OLS corrected nighttime lights, and NPP/VIIRS nighttime lights, respectively, while MODIS data has model performance of R2 = 0.77 (Hubei) and R2 = 0.55 (Guangdong) based on the Linear-SVM model, further indicating that MODIS data improves the accuracy of GDP estimation compared to DMSP/OLS nighttime lights. In addition, MODIS data produced finer GDP estimation than DMSP/OLS nighttime lights, especially in dark and light saturated areas. Although MODIS data is not as accurate as the NPP/VIIRS nighttime lights for estimating GDP, the proposed method could be applicable to other daytime satellite data and has broad prospects for improving the spatial and temporal resolution of regional economic activity and improving estimation accuracy.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial (down) 2630
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