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Author Fiorini M.; Sanfilippo M.
Title Roads and jobs in Ethiopia Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication UNU-WIDER Abbreviated Journal
Volume 2019 Issue 116 Pages
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract We look at how improving roads can affect jobs and structural transformation. We use a novel geocoded dataset covering the universe of Ethiopian roads and match this information with individual data to identify the effects of improvements in road infrastructure on the creation, quality, and sectoral distribution of jobs over the period 1994–2013. We find that, at the district level, higher market potential due to better roads contributes to the creation of new jobs, reduces the share of agricultural workers, and increases that of workers in the services sector but not in manufacturing. The latter experiences a relative increase in the share of informal workers. Finally, investigating the underlying mechanisms, we show that patterns of internal migration and changes in economic opportunities can help to rationalize our findings.
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Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial (down) 3213
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Author Lin, J.; Westland, S.
Title Effect of long-wavelength light on electroencephalogram and subjective alertness Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology
Volume 52 Issue 6 Pages 763-774
Keywords Human Health
Abstract This study extends previous findings on the effect of different levels of short-wavelength light on human alertness. This study explores the alerting ability of long-wavelength light at two levels (40 lx and 160 lx). Eight subjects took part in the 60-minute experiment for each of two nights, during which their objective alertness and subjective alertness were evaluated using electroencephalogram and questionnaire. Results show that both levels increased electroencephalogram beta power, which shows a different pattern compared with the previous findings on short-wavelength light. These results strongly suggest that although short-wavelength light may impact alertness through circadian system, long-wavelength light will have to achieve that through other pathways. The further comparison between current and previous results also suggests that long-wavelength light is just as strong on acute alerting ability, as shown by electroencephalogram measures and self-rating questionnaire, as short-wavelength light.
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ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial (down) 3212
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Author Svechkina, A.; Portnov, B.A.; Trop, T.
Title The impact of artificial light at night on human and ecosystem health: a systematic literature review Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Landscape Ecology Abbreviated Journal Landscape Ecol
Volume 35 Issue 8 Pages 1725-1742
Keywords Human Health; Ecology; Review
Abstract Context

Artificial light at night (ALAN) provides an array of important benefits but might also adversely affect humans and other living organisms. Yet, the existing reviews of accumulated knowledge about the multifaceted effects associated with exposure to ALAN focus on distinct ecosystem components. As a result, our understanding of potential system-wide impacts of ALAN exposure is insufficient.

Objectives

This paper attempts to bridge this knowledge gap by reviewing a wide range of studies, with a particular focus on identifying the impacts of ALAN exposure that are common to different species.

Methods

The survey is conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and covers peer-reviewed articles published from 2000 to 2019.

Results

Seventy-four eligible articles, out of 1223 initially identified, were selected and synthesized. 20% of them focus on humans, while the rest explore other living organisms, such as vertebrates, avian species, arthropods, aquatic organisms, and vegetation. The review demonstrates that similar adverse effects of ALAN exposure, ranging from sleep disturbance, depression, weight gain, eating and movement disorders, to elevated risk of cancer, are manifested across different components of the ecosystem, and therefore entail wider and more complex risks to its stability and integrity.

Conclusion

To reduce ecosystem risks, associated with constantly increasing ALAN levels, illumination policies should be based on directional and reduced nighttime lighting, which can help to avoid unnecessary exposures. The study highlights knowledge gaps that warrant further research attention.
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ISSN 0921-2973 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial (down) 3211
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Author Mahdi D. G.; AbdusSamad A. A.
Title Sleep Timing, Light at Night Exposure and it’s Health Effects Among Staff and Students of Bayero University, Kano Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Dutse Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Abbreviated Journal DUJOPAS
Volume 5 Issue 2b Pages 223-230
Keywords Human Health
Abstract The invention of electricity has pervasively challenged our evolutionary adaptation of dusk to down limited light exposure leading to a conflict between our endogenous biological clocks and the environmental time thus posing a significant health concern. This study therefore explored sleep timing habits, light at night exposure and awareness of its health effects among staff and students of Basic Medical Sciences Faculty of Bayero University, Kano. Data were obtained using a semi- structured, interviewer assisted data capturing form while analysis was done using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSSV20.0) software. Quantitative data were summarized using mean±SD while qualitative data were summarized using frequencies and percentages. Independent samples t- test and person’s Chi-square were used to compare discrete and categorical variables respectively, in all cases, statistical significance was considered at P ≤ 0.05. The results indicated that all the respondents were exposed to LAN. The mean duration of LAN exposure was found to be 5.2±1.4 hours. Late retirement to bed was observed higher among male gender with male students sleeping at 00:21±1.4 hrs and female staff sleeping at 22:20±1.5 hrs. Bivariate analysis reveals a strong positive relationship between LAN exposure duration and sleep timing (r=+0.802; p=0.001) as well as sleep duration (r=-0.552; 0=0.001). On the other hand, awareness about the health effects of LAN exposure was observed to be low (17.4%) among the respondents with staff being more aware (38.5%) than students (9.1%). Finding of the present study shows that the respondents are highly exposed to LAN, had less sleep and lower awareness of the consequences of LAN exposure.
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ISSN 2476-8316 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial (down) 3210
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Author Feng T.; Li Z.; Li S.
Title Effects of Constant Light on the Behavioral Parameters in Rats Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication International Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages in press
Keywords Animals
Abstract Light pollution is one of the most rapidly increasing types of environmental degradation, especially in the hospital ward and ICUs. Exposure to constant light (LL) condition disrupts circadian rhythms in behavioral, physiological and endocrinal processes. Whether melatonin can reverse those disruptions remains unclear. We used male Sprague – Dawley rats (7 weeks of age at the time of purchase)to explore 1) the effects of LL condition on social memory, anxiety–like behavior and circadian system, 2) whether exogenous melatonin can reverse the changes. Compared with LD + Veh (LD: standard 12h:12hlight-dark cycles; Veh: receive vehicle intraperitoneal injection) group, rats exposed to LL for two weeks had less anxiety-like behavior, impaired the social memory, elongated the rhythm cycle of free running wheel and disrupted secretion of corticosterone (Cort) and melatonin (Mel). Application of exogenous melatonin couldn't rescue the impairment of the social memory and the disrupted circadian system. These findings suggest that LL condition can disorganize the circadian system and exogenous melatonin cannot reverse these changes.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial (down) 3209
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