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Author Manoli, G.; Fatichi, S.; Schlapfer, M.; Yu, K.; Crowther, T.W.; Meili, N.; Burlando, P.; Katul, G.G.; Bou-Zeid, E.
Title Magnitude of urban heat islands largely explained by climate and population Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature
Volume 573 Issue 7772 Pages 55-60
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Urban heat islands (UHIs) exacerbate the risk of heat-related mortality associated with global climate change. The intensity of UHIs varies with population size and mean annual precipitation, but a unifying explanation for this variation is lacking, and there are no geographically targeted guidelines for heat mitigation. Here we analyse summertime differences between urban and rural surface temperatures (DeltaTs) worldwide and find a nonlinear increase in DeltaTs with precipitation that is controlled by water or energy limitations on evapotranspiration and that modulates the scaling of DeltaTs with city size. We introduce a coarse-grained model that links population, background climate, and UHI intensity, and show that urban-rural differences in evapotranspiration and convection efficiency are the main determinants of warming. The direct implication of these nonlinearities is that mitigation strategies aimed at increasing green cover and albedo are more efficient in dry regions, whereas the challenge of cooling tropical cities will require innovative solutions.
Address Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31485056 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2669
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Author Elvidge, C. D.; Erwin, E.H.; Baugh, K.E.; Ziskin, D.; Tuttle, B.T.; Ghosh, T.; Sutton, P.C.
Title Overview of DMSP nightime lights and future possibilities Type Conference Article
Year 2009 Publication Joint Urban Remote Sensing Event Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Remote Sensing; DMSP; DMSP-OLS; Night lights
Abstract The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) has a unique capability to collect low-light imaging data of the earth at night. The OLS and its predecessors have collected this style of data on a nightly global basis since 1972. The digital archive of OLS data extends back to 1992. Over the years several global nighttime lights products have been generated. NGDC has now produced a set of global cloud-free nighttime lights products, specifically processed for the detection of changes in lighting emitted by human settlements, spanning 1992-93 to 2008. While the OLS is far from ideal for observing nighttime lights, the DMSP nighttime lights products have been successfully used in modeling the spatial distribution of population density, carbon emissions, and economic activity.
Address Earth Observation Group NOAA National Geophysical Data Center Boulder, Colorado 80305 USA; chris.elvidge(at)noaa.gov
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher IEEE Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2334-0932 ISBN 978-1-4244-3461-9 Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 2668
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Author Stone, J.E.; Phillips, A.J.K.; Ftouni, S.; Magee, M.; Howard, M.; Lockley, S.W.; Sletten, T.L.; Anderson, C.; Rajaratnam, S.M.W.; Postnova, S.
Title Generalizability of A Neural Network Model for Circadian Phase Prediction in Real-World Conditions Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep
Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 11001
Keywords Human Health; Instrumentation
Abstract A neural network model was previously developed to predict melatonin rhythms accurately from blue light and skin temperature recordings in individuals on a fixed sleep schedule. This study aimed to test the generalizability of the model to other sleep schedules, including rotating shift work. Ambulatory wrist blue light irradiance and skin temperature data were collected in 16 healthy individuals on fixed and habitual sleep schedules, and 28 rotating shift workers. Artificial neural network models were trained to predict the circadian rhythm of (i) salivary melatonin on a fixed sleep schedule; (ii) urinary aMT6s on both fixed and habitual sleep schedules, including shift workers on a diurnal schedule; and (iii) urinary aMT6s in rotating shift workers on a night shift schedule. To determine predicted circadian phase, center of gravity of the fitted bimodal skewed baseline cosine curve was used for melatonin, and acrophase of the cosine curve for aMT6s. On a fixed sleep schedule, the model predicted melatonin phase to within +/- 1 hour in 67% and +/- 1.5 hours in 100% of participants, with mean absolute error of 41 +/- 32 minutes. On diurnal schedules, including shift workers, the model predicted aMT6s acrophase to within +/- 1 hour in 66% and +/- 2 hours in 87% of participants, with mean absolute error of 63 +/- 67 minutes. On night shift schedules, the model predicted aMT6s acrophase to within +/- 1 hour in 42% and +/- 2 hours in 53% of participants, with mean absolute error of 143 +/- 155 minutes. Prediction accuracy was similar when using either 1 (wrist) or 11 skin temperature sensor inputs. These findings demonstrate that the model can predict circadian timing to within +/- 2 hours for the vast majority of individuals on diurnal schedules, using blue light and a single temperature sensor. However, this approach did not generalize to night shift conditions.
Address School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31358781; PMCID:PMC6662750 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2667
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Author Todd, J.J.; Barakat, B.; Tavassoli, A.; Krauss, D.A.
Title The Moon’s Contribution to Nighttime Illuminance in Different Environments Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 1056-1060
Keywords Moonlight
Abstract The moon’s contribution to illuminance was investigated in order to determine the role it may play in providing a level of illuminance suitable to perform everyday tasks in nighttime outdoor environments. The level of illuminance provided in an area void of artificial lighting was compared to illuminance in an urban environment. Moon phase affected illuminance only in the absence of urban lighting. This effect was lost when controlling for altitude and azimuth, suggesting the moon’s location in the sky has a more significant effect on illuminance than the phase of the moon. These results are discussed in relation to our current understanding and experience of navigating and operating in nighttime environments.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1541-9312 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2666
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Author Nagai, N.; Ayaki, M.; Yanagawa, T.; Hattori, A.; Negishi, K.; Mori, T.; Nakamura, T.J.; Tsubota, K.
Title Suppression of Blue Light at Night Ameliorates Metabolic Abnormalities by Controlling Circadian Rhythms Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science Abbreviated Journal Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci
Volume 60 Issue 12 Pages 3786-3793
Keywords Human Health; Animals
Abstract Purpose: Light-emitting diodes that emit high-intensity blue light are associated with blue-light hazard. Here, we report that blue light disturbs circadian rhythms by interfering with the clock gene in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and that suppression of blue light at night ameliorates metabolic abnormalities by controlling circadian rhythms. Methods: C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 10-lux light for 30 minutes at Zeitgeber time 14 for light pulse with blue light or blue-light cut light to induce phase shift of circadian rhythms. Phase shift, clock gene expression in SCN, and metabolic parameters were analyzed. In the clinical study, healthy participants wore blue-light shield eyewear for 2 to 3 hours before bed. Anthropometric data analyses, laboratory tests, and sleep quality questionnaires were performed before and after the study. Results: In mice, phase shift induced with a blue-light cut light pulse was significantly shorter than that induced with a white light pulse. The phase of Per2 expression in the SCN was also delayed after a white light pulse. Moreover, blood glucose levels 48 hours after the white light pulse were higher than those after the blue-cut light pulse. Irs2 expression in the liver was decreased with white light but significantly recovered with the blue-cut light pulse. In a clinical study, after 1 month of wearing blue-light shield eyeglasses, there were improvements in fasting plasma glucose levels, insulin resistance, and sleep quality. Conclusions: Our results suggest that suppression of blue light at night effectively maintains circadian rhythms and metabolism.
Address Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0146-0404 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31504080 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2665
Permanent link to this record