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Author Elgert, C.; Hopkins, J.; Kaitala, A.; Candolin, U.
Title Reproduction under light pollution: maladaptive response to spatial variation in artificial light in a glow-worm Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc. R. Soc. B.
Volume 287 Issue 1931 Pages 20200806
Keywords Animals; glow-worms; Lampyris noctiluca; insects; maladaptive response; reproduction
Abstract The amount of artificial light at night is growing worldwide, impacting the behaviour of nocturnal organisms. Yet, we know little about the consequences of these behavioural responses for individual fitness and population viability. We investigated if females of the common glow-worm Lampyris noctiluca—which glow in the night to attract males—mitigate negative effects of artificial light on mate attraction by adjusting the timing and location of glowing to spatial variation in light conditions. We found females do not move away from light when exposed to a gradient of artificial light, but delay or even refrain from glowing. Further, we demonstrate that this response is maladaptive, as our field study showed that staying still when exposed to artificial light from a simulated streetlight decreases mate attraction success, while moving only a short distance from the light source can markedly improve mate attraction. These results indicate that glow-worms are unable to respond to spatial variation in artificial light, which may be a factor in their global decline. Consequently, our results support the hypothesis that animals often lack adaptive behavioural responses to anthropogenic environmental changes and underlines the importance of considering behavioural responses when investigating the effects of human activities on wildlife.
Address Organismal and Evolutionary Biology, University of Helsinki, PO Box 65, 00014 Helsinki, Finland; christina.elgert(at)helsinki.fi
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 3049
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Author Calvo-Sanz, J.A.; Tapia-Ayuga, C.E.
Title Blue light emission spectra of popular mobile devices: The extent of user protection against melatonin suppression by built-in screen technology and light filtering software systems Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int
Volume Issue Pages 1-7
Keywords Measurements; Blue light; blue light emission; light control software; mobile devices; screen technology
Abstract Blue light, with wavelengths shorter than 440-450 nm, is the most energetic radiation of the visible spectrum for the human eye, and its possible multiple effects on the human nervous and other systems have become a line of research by many investigators. The use of mobile devices whose screens emit various amounts of blue light is common nowadays. This study evaluated the efficiency of the blue light screen and control software technologies of eight different mobile devices. Emitted screen spectra of the different mobile devices according to different conditions of blue light emission software control were obtained using a spectrograph, and the derived spectra were compared with the melatonin suppression action spectrum. The amount of blue light emission and predicted melatonin suppression varied according to the unique software control and screen technology of each device. AMOLED screen technology, compared with other screen technologies, achieved better control of blue light emission. The effect of blue light filters depends on the screen technology; however, the melatonin suppression index of mobile devices is not reduced sufficiently by the use of blue light-attenuating software.
Address Departamento De Fisica De La Atmosfera Y Astrofisica, Universidad Complutense De Madrid , Madrid, Spain
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32649241 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 3048
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Author Mirzakhalil, S.H.; Bidgoli, S.A.
Title A Photographic Investigation of Tehran's Light Pollution from North and East Directions Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Anthropogenic Pollution Abbreviated Journal
Volume 1 Issue 1 Pages 18-24
Keywords Skygow
Abstract Tehran is the most affected town by light pollution in Iran. In this study, the role of the regional topography in the distribution of light pollution in Tehran was evaluated using digital images recording and analyzing the obtained images from Tehran sky-glow by East and South in standard image-processing Software. The scale of Tehran's glowing =dome as measured by 17 mag/arc sec2 or 0.017 cd/m2 by South, and 18.7 (mag/arc sec2) or 0.0035 cd/m2 by East. Considering the approximately equal distance of the two viewpoints from the center of Tehran city, the calculated scale by South is 1.36 times larger than the amount from the East point.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3047
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Author Park, H.R.; Choi, S.J.; Jo, H.; Cho, J.W.; Joo, E.Y.
Title Effects of Evening Exposure to Light from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes on Melatonin and Sleep Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Clinical Neurology Abbreviated Journal J Clin Neurol
Volume 16 Issue 3 Pages 401
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Background and Purpose

Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) emit less blue light than traditional light-emitting diodes (LEDs), but the effects of OLED light exposure (LE) on melatonin and sleep have not been evaluated.

Methods

Twenty-four healthy subjects (age 26.9±5.7 years; including 18 females) with the intermediate chronotype were exposed to three different light conditions [4,000 K 150 lux OLED LE, 4,000 K 150 lux LED LE, and dim light (DL) at <10 lux] for 6.5 h from 17:30 to 24:00, in a random order and with a 1-week interval. Participants entered the unit for the experiment at 16:00, and their daylight was measured by actigraphy from 8:00 to 16:00 during each session. Saliva samples for melatonin were taken every hour from 18:00 to 24:00. Sleep was monitored by polysomnography, and vigilance was evaluated by psychomotor vigilance test upon awakening.

Results

Melatonin onset occurred at 21:11±01:24, 21:20±01:19, and 21:36±01:16 in the DL, OLED, and LED conditions, respectively. Melatonin onset was significantly delayed under LED LE compared to DL (p=0.007) but did not differ under OLED LE (p=0.245). Melatonin suppression, sleep parameters, and vigilance were similar among the three light conditions. The accumulated amount of daytime light in each session was negatively correlated with the melatonin onset time under the DL (rho=−0.634, p=0.002) and OLED (rho=−0.447, p=0.029) conditions, not under the LED condition (p=0.129).

Conclusions

Melatonin onset under OLED LE was not significantly delayed compared to DL. Exposure to sufficient daylight may advance melatonin onset even when a subject is exposed to OLED LE in the evening.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1738-6586 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3046
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kolkert, H.; Smith, R.; Rader, R.; Reid, N.
Title Insectivorous bats foraging in cotton crop interiors is driven by moon illumination and insect abundance, but diversity benefits from woody vegetation cover Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment Abbreviated Journal Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
Volume 302 Issue Pages 107068
Keywords Animals; Moonlight
Abstract Landscape and biophysical determinants of insectivorous bat activity and community composition in space and time are central to understanding how growers can maximise bat-mediated pest control services in crops. We measured community composition, abundance, richness and foraging attempts of insectivorous bats in the centre of dryland cotton crops using acoustic sampling. We examined how bat activity was related to woody vegetation in the surrounding landscape, prey insect abundance, distance to crop edge, size of field, proximity to waterbodies and moon illumination to better understand insectivorous bat diversity and foraging in crop interiors. We collected a total of 9467 acoustic files including 1198 foraging attempts (feeding buzzes) of at least 21 insectivorous bat species. The bat assemblage in cotton crop interiors (richness and diversity) was positively related to woody vegetation foliage cover within 5–10 km of the crop, as well as Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera abundance, but was negatively related to distance from the field edge into the crop and moon illumination. Increased feeding attempts were linked to increased Lepidoptera and Hemiptera on nights of high moon illumination (> 75 %). Bat activity and foraging was also higher during nights of increased insect abundance, particularly Lepidoptera, indicating that bats track food resources. Our results highlight the importance of managing bat roosting habitat at different landscape scales to enhance bat diversity and foraging in crop interiors and thus insect consumption. Given the high bat feeding activity on nights of high moon illumination and increased Hemiptera abundance, the timing of insecticide sprays to target pests, such as Hemipteran sucking bugs, could be scheduled on nights of low moon illumination. Such information is useful in identifying conservation priorities for the management of bats in intensively farmed agroecosystems and should facilitate habitat management by growers to maximise crop pest protection services in crop interiors.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0167-8809 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3045
Permanent link to this record