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Author Schroer, S.; Huggins, B.J.; Azam, C.; Hölker, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Working with Inadequate Tools: Legislative Shortcomings in Protection against Ecological Effects of Artificial Light at Night Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability  
  Volume 12 Issue 6 Pages 2551  
  Keywords Conservation; Animals; Society; Law  
  Abstract The fundamental change in nocturnal landscapes due to the increasing use of artificial light at night (ALAN) is recognized as being detrimental to the environment and raises important regulatory questions as to whether and how it should be regulated based on the manifold risks to the environment. Here, we present the results of an analysis of the current legal obligations on ALAN in context with a systematic review of adverse effects. The legal analysis includes the relevant aspects of European and German environmental law, specifically nature conservation and immission control. The review represents the results of 303 studies indicating significant disturbances of organisms and landscapes. We discuss the conditions for prohibitions by environmental laws and whether protection gaps persist and, hence, whether specific legislation for light pollution is necessary. While protection is predominantly provided for species with special protection status that reveal avoidance behavior of artificially lit landscapes and associated habitat loss, adverse effects on species and landscapes without special protection status are often unaddressed by existing regulations. Legislative shortcomings are caused by difficulties in proving adverse effect on the population level, detecting lighting malpractice, and applying the law to ALAN-related situations. Measures to reduce ALAN-induced environmental impacts are highlighted. We discuss whether an obligation to implement such measures is favorable for environmental protection and how regulations can be implemented.  
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  ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2868  
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Author Gomes, D.G.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Orb-weaving spiders are fewer but larger and catch more prey in lit bridge panels from a natural artificial light experiment Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication PeerJ Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 8 Issue Pages e8808  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Artificial light at night is rapidly changing the sensory world. While evidence is accumulating for how insects are affected, it is not clear how this impacts higher trophic levels that feed on insect communities. Spiders are important insect predators that have recently been shown to have increased abundance in urban areas, but have shown mixed responses to artificial light. On a single bridge with alternating artificially lit and unlit sections, I measured changes in the orb-weaving spider Larinioides sclopetarius (Araneidae) web abundance, web-building behavior, prey-capture, and body condition. In artificially lit conditions, spiders caught more prey with smaller webs, and had higher body conditions. However, there were fewer spiders with active webs in those lit areas. This suggests that either spiders were not taking advantage of an ecological insect trap, perhaps due to an increased risk of becoming prey themselves, or were satiated, and thus not as active within these habitats. The results from this natural experiment may have important consequences for both insects and spiders in urban areas under artificial lighting conditions.  
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  ISSN 2167-8359 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2867  
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Author Crespo Cuaresma, J.; Danylo, O.; Fritz, S.; Hofer, M.; Kharas, H.; Laso Bayas, J.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title What do we know about poverty in North Korea? Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Palgrave Communications Abbreviated Journal Palgrave Commun  
  Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages in press  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Reliable quantitative information on the North Korean economy is extremely scarce. In particular, reliable income per capita and poverty figures for the country are not available. In this contribution, we provide for the first time estimates of absolute poverty rates in North Korean subnational regions based on the combination of innovative remote-sensed night-time light intensity data (monthly information for built areas) with estimated income distributions. Our results, which are robust to the use of different methods to approximate the income distribution in the country, indicate that the share of persons living in extreme poverty in North Korea may be larger than previously thought. We estimate a poverty rate for the country of around 60% in 2018 and a high volatility in the dynamics of income at the national level in North Korea for the period 2012–2018. Income per capita estimates tend to decline significantly from 2012 to 2015 and present a recovery since 2016. The subnational estimates of income and poverty reveal a change in relative dynamics since the second half of the 2012–2018 period. The first part of the period is dominated by divergent dynamics in income across regions, while the second half reveals convergence in regional income.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2055-1045 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2866  
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Author Andreatta, G.; Tessmar-Raible, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The still dark side of the moon: molecular mechanisms of lunar-controlled rhythms and clocks Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Molecular Biology Abbreviated Journal J Mol Biol  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Review; Animals; Hormones; Lunar rhythms; Physiology; Proteome; Transcriptome  
  Abstract Starting with the beginning of the last century, a multitude of scientific studies has documented that the lunar cycle times behaviors and physiology in many organisms. It is plausible that even the first life forms adapted to the different rhythms controlled by the moon. Consistently, many marine species exhibit lunar rhythms, and also the number of documented “lunar-rhythmic” terrestrial species is increasing. Organisms follow diverse lunar geophysical/astronomical rhythms, which differ significantly in terms of period length: from hours (circalunidian and circatidal rhythms) to days (circasemilunar and circalunar cycles). Evidence for internal circatital and circalunar oscillators exists for a range of species based on past behavioral studies, but those species with well-documented behaviorally free-running lunar rhythms are not typically used for molecular studies. Thus, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely obscure: the dark side of the moon. Here we review findings which start to connect molecular pathways with moon-controlled physiology and behaviors. The present data indicate connections between metabolic/endocrine pathways and moon-controlled rhythms, as well as interactions between circadian and circatidal/circalunar rhythms. Moreover, recent high-throughput analyses provide useful leads towards pathways, as well as molecular markers. However, for each interpretation it is important to carefully consider the – partly substantially differing – conditions used in each experimental paradigm. In the future, it will be important to use lab experiments to delineate the specific mechanisms of the different solar- and lunar-controlled rhythms, but to also start integrating them together, as life has evolved equally long under rhythms of both sun and moon.  
  Address Max Perutz Labs, University of Vienna, Vienna BioCenter, Dr. Bohr-Gasse 9/4, A-1030 Vienna; Research Platform “Rhythms of Life”, University of Vienna, Vienna BioCenter, Dr. Bohr-Gasse 9/4, A-1030 Vienna. Electronic address: kristin.tessmar@mfpl.ac.at  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-2836 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32198116 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2865  
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Author Bumgarner, J.R.; Walker, W.H. 2nd; Liu, J.A.; Walton, J.C.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dim light at night exposure induces cold hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in male mice Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Neuroscience  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals; Allodynia; Hyperalgesia; Light at Night; Neuroinflammation; Opioid; Pain  
  Abstract The growing presence of artificial lighting across the globe presents a number of challenges to human and ecological health despite its societal benefits. Exposure to artificial light at night, a seemingly innocuous aspect of modern life, disrupts behavior and physiological functions. Specifically, light at night induces neuroinflammation, which is implicated in neuropathic and nociceptive pain states, including hyperalgesia and allodynia. Because of its influence on neuroinflammation, we investigated the effects of dim light at night exposure on pain responsiveness in male mice. In this study, mice exposed to four days of dim (5 lux) light at night exhibited cold hyperalgesia. Further, after 28 days of exposure, mice exhibited both cold hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. No heat/hot hyperalgesia was observed in this experiment. Altered nociception in mice exposed to dim light at night was concurrent with upregulated interleukin-6 and nerve growth factor mRNA expression in the medulla and elevated mu-opioid receptor mRNA expression in the periaqueductal gray region of the brain. The current results support the relationship between disrupted circadian rhythms and altered pain sensitivity. In summary, we observed that dim light at night induces cold hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, potentially through elevated central neuroinflammation and dysregulation of the endogenous opioid system.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience, Rockefeller Neuroscience Institute, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, 26506 United States  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0306-4522 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32201267 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2864  
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