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Author Straka III, W.; Kondragunta, S.; Wei, Z.; Zhang, H.; Miller, S.D.; Watts, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Examining the Economic and Environmental Impacts of COVID-19 Using Earth Observation Data Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 5  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; COVID-19  
  Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has infected almost 73 million people and is responsible for over 1.63 million fatalities worldwide since early December 2019, when it was first reported in Wuhan, China. In the early stages of the pandemic, social distancing measures, such as lockdown restrictions, were applied in a non-uniform way across the world to reduce the spread of the virus. While such restrictions contributed to flattening the curve in places like Italy, Germany, and South Korea, it plunged the economy in the United States to a level of recession not seen since WWII, while also improving air quality due to the reduced mobility. Using daily Earth observation data (Day/Night Band (DNB) from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Suomi-NPP and NO2 measurements from the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument TROPOMI) along with monthly averaged cell phone derived mobility data, we examined the economic and environmental impacts of lockdowns in Los Angeles, California; Chicago, Illinois; Washington DC from February to April 2020—encompassing the most profound shutdown measures taken in the U.S. The preliminary analysis revealed that the reduction in mobility involved two major observable impacts: (i) improved air quality (a reduction in NO2 and PM2.5 concentration), but (ii) reduced economic activity (a decrease in energy consumption as measured by the radiance from the DNB data) that impacted on gross domestic product, poverty levels, and the unemployment rate. With the continuing rise of COVID-19 cases and declining economic conditions, such knowledge can be combined with unemployment and demographic data to develop policies and strategies for the safe reopening of the economy while preserving our environment and protecting vulnerable populations susceptible to COVID-19 infection.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3250  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Shima, J.S.; Osenberg, C.W.; Noonburg, E.G.; Alonzo, S.H.; Swearer, S.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Lunar rhythms in growth of larval fish Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci  
  Volume 288 Issue 1942 Pages 20202609  
  Keywords Moonlight; Animals; developmental history; larval growth; lunar periodicity; reef fish; trophic connectivity  
  Abstract Growth and survival of larval fishes is highly variable and unpredictable. Our limited understanding of this variation constrains our ability to forecast population dynamics and effectively manage fisheries. Here we show that daily growth rates of a coral reef fish (the sixbar wrasse, Thalassoma hardwicke) are strongly lunar-periodic and predicted by the timing of nocturnal brightness: growth was maximized when the first half of the night was dark and the second half of the night was bright. Cloud cover that obscured moonlight facilitated a 'natural experiment', and confirmed the effect of moonlight on growth. We suggest that lunar-periodic growth may be attributable to light-mediated suppression of diel vertical migrations of predators and prey. Accounting for such effects will improve our capacity to predict the future dynamics of marine populations, especially in response to climate-driven changes in nocturnal cloud cover and intensification of artificial light, which could lead to population declines by reducing larval survival and growth.  
  Address School of BioSciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:33434460 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3249  
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Author Linda, G.; Josh, D.; Daniela, A.; Line, L.; Sebastian, M.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Effect of Altering Routine Husbandry Factors on Sleep Duration and Memory Consolidation in the Horse Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Applied Animal Behaviour Science  
  Volume in press Issue Pages 105229  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Sleep is a critically important behaviour for all mammals due to its fundamental role within homeostatic/circadian systems and memory consolidation. As a large and vigilant prey species that is highly sensitive to stimuli at night, the horse sleeps less than other mammalian species. For this reason, the domestic environment has the potential to greatly affect the duration and quality of equine sleep. This study aimed to determine the effect of environmental factors on equine sleep stages, and whether this would influence cognitive performance during a spatial memory task. Ten riding school horses (mixed breed/ height/ sex; average age 14.9 + 2.4 years) were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 5) within a five-week crossover repeated measures design experiment. Each group experienced a combination of one of two light conditions (lights on = Treatment; lights off = Control), and one of two bedding depth treatments (15 cm bed = control; 5 cm bed = treatment) for six days. Duration of sleep stage behaviours (standing Non-Rapid Eye Movement [NREM]), sternal NREM, sternal Rapid Eye Movement [REM] and lateral REM) were measured continuously using CCTV infrared cameras. For the spatial memory task, latency, number of correct responses, and differences between these parameters during training and testing days were measured. A repeated measures general linear model assessed the effects of treatment conditions on duration of sleep stage, and changes in sleep stage over time (bedding and light set as within-subject factors). Wilcoxon Signed-Rank and paired t-tests determined differences in memory task parameters between treatments. Comparing Treatment Bedding with Control Bedding conditions, horses spent on average significantly less time in lateral REM (0.34 ± 0.12 versus 0.46 ± 0.13 hrs; p = 0.032) and sternal NREM (0.64 ± 0.10 versus 0.80 ± 0.12 hrs; p = 0.007), and significantly more time in standing NREM (3.69 ± 0.76 versus 3.17 ± 0.77; p = 0.024). Only sternal REM was significantly affected during the Treatment Light condition compared to control conditions (0.53 ± 0.07 versus 0.67 ± 0.11; p = 0.031). Interactions between day and treatment were apparent for specific sleep stage behaviours indicative of acclimatisation. No significant effects (p > 0.05) of Treatment Light or Bedding conditions were detected for performance during the spatial memory test. Overall, horses exposed to sub-optimal conditions tended to display significantly less time in recumbent sleep stages (NREM and REM) and increased time in a standing NREM stage. The impact of reduced sleep on equine cognition requires further study.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3248  
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Author Bustamante-Calabria, M.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Ortiz, J.-L.; Vílchez, J.M.; Pelegrina, A.; García, A.; Zamorano, J.; Bennie, J.; Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of the COVID-19 Lockdown on Urban Light Emissions: Ground and Satellite Comparison Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 13 Issue 2 Pages 258  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; COVID-19; skyglow  
  Abstract ’Lockdown’ periods in response to COVID-19 have provided a unique opportunity to study the impacts of economic activity on environmental pollution (e.g., NO2, aerosols, noise, light). The effects on NO2 and aerosols have been very noticeable and readily demonstrated, but that on light pollution has proven challenging to determine. The main reason for this difficulty is that the primary source of nighttime satellite imagery of the earth is the SNPP-VIIRS/DNB instrument, which acquires data late at night after most human nocturnal activity has already occurred and much associated lighting has been turned off. Here, to analyze the effect of lockdown on urban light emissions, we use ground and satellite data for Granada, Spain, during the COVID-19 induced confinement of the city’s population from 14 March until 31 May 2020. We find a clear decrease in light pollution due both to a decrease in light emissions from the city and to a decrease in anthropogenic aerosol content in the atmosphere which resulted in less light being scattered. A clear correlation between the abundance of PM10 particles and sky brightness is observed, such that the more polluted the atmosphere the brighter the urban night sky. An empirical expression is determined that relates PM10 particle abundance and sky brightness at three different wavelength bands.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3247  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Pérez Vega, C.; Zielinska-Dabkowska, K.M.; Hölker, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Urban Lighting Research Transdisciplinary Framework—A Collaborative Process with Lighting Professionals Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Abbreviated Journal Ijerph  
  Volume 18 Issue 2 Pages 624  
  Keywords Planning; Lighting  
  Abstract Over the past decades, lighting professionals have influenced the experience of the night by brightly illuminating streets, buildings, skylines, and landscapes 24/7. When this became the accepted norm, a dual perspective on night-time was shaped and the visual enjoyment of visitors after dusk was prioritized over natural nightscapes (nocturnal landscapes). During this time, researchers of artificial light at night (ALAN) observed and reported a gradual increase in unnatural brightness and a shift in color of the night-time environment. As a consequence, ALAN has been identified as a relevant pollutant of aquatic and terrestrial habitats, and an environmental stressor, which may adversely affect a wide range of organisms, from micro-organisms to humans. Unfortunately, lighting professionals and ALAN researchers usually attempt to solve today’s sustainable urban lighting problems distinctive to their fields of study, without a dialogue between research and practice. Therefore, in order to translate research knowledge as an applicable solution for the lighting practice and to minimize the impact on the environment, a collaborative framework involving a transdisciplinary process with lighting professionals is crucial to potentially bring the practice, research, production, decision-making, and planning closer to each other. This paper presents a framework to help reduce the existing gap of knowledge, because appropriate lighting applications depend upon it. Access to less light polluted nightscapes in urban environments is just as important as access to unpolluted water, food, and air. This call for action towards sustainable urban lighting should be included in future lighting policies to solve the urgent environmental and health challenges facing our world.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1660-4601 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3246  
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