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Author Hey, M.H.; DiBiase, E.; Roach, D.A.; Carr, D.E.; Haynes, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Interactions between artificial light at night, soil moisture, and plant density affect the growth of a perennial wildflower Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Oecologia Abbreviated Journal Oecologia  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Plants; Community ecology; Light pollution; Milkweed; Precipitation; Sensory pollution  
  Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) has been shown to alter aspects of plant growth, but we are not aware of any studies that have examined whether the effects of ALAN on plants depend upon the backdrop of variation in other abiotic factors that plants encounter in field populations. We conducted a field experiment to investigate whether ALAN affects the growth and anti-herbivore defenses of common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca, and whether the effects of ALAN are influenced by plant density or soil moisture content. Artificial light at night, soil moisture, and plant density were manipulated according to a split-plot factorial design. Although increasing soil moisture by watering had no significant effects on latex exudation, attributes of plant growth generally responded positively to watering. The basal stem diameter (BSD) and height of plants were affected by ALAN x soil moisture interactions. For both of these variables, the positive effects of ALAN were greater for plants that were not watered than for plants that were. Basal stem diameter was also affected by an ALAN x plant density interaction, and the positive effect of ALAN on BSD was greater in the low-density treatment than in the high-density treatment. Our results demonstrate that the effects of ALAN on plant growth can be altered by soil moisture and plant density. Consequently, the effects of ALAN on plants in nature may not be consistent with existing frameworks that do not account for critical abiotic variables such as water availability or biotic interactions between plants such as competition.  
  Address Blandy Experimental Farm, University of Virginia, 400 Blandy Farm Lane, Boyce, VA, 22620, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0029-8549 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32533357 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3003  
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Author Lessmann, C.; Steinkraus, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The geography of natural resources, ethnic inequality and civil conflicts Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication European Journal of Political Economy Abbreviated Journal European Journal of Political Economy  
  Volume 59 Issue Pages 33-51  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract e study whether the spatial distribution of natural resources across different ethnic groups within countries causes spatial inequality and the incidence of armed conflict. By providing a theoretical rent-seeking model and analysing a set of geo-coded data for mines, night-time light emissions, local populations and ethnic homelands, we show that the spatial distribution of resources is a major driving factor of ethnic income inequality. Moreover, a spatially unequal distribution of natural resources induces rent-seeking behaviour and thus increases the risk of civil conflicts. Consequently, we extend the perspective of the resource curse to explain cross-country differences in income inequality and the onset of civil conflicts.  
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  ISSN 0176-2680 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3002  
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Author Lessmann, C.; Seidel, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Regional inequality, convergence, and its determinants – A view from outer space Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication European Economic Review Abbreviated Journal European Economic Review  
  Volume 92 Issue Pages 110-132  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract This paper provides a new dataset of regional income inequalities within countries based on satellite nighttime light data. First, we empirically study the relationship between luminosity data and regional incomes for those countries for which regional income data are available. Second, we use our estimation results for an out-of-sample prediction of regional incomes based on the luminosity data. These results enable us to investigate regional income differentials in developing countries that lack official income data. Third, we calculate commonly used measures of regional inequality within countries based on predicted incomes. An investigation of changes in the dispersion of regional incomes over time reveals that approximately 67–70% of all countries experience sigma-convergence. Forth, we study different major determinants of within-country changes in inequality, i.e., the determinants of the convergence process. We find evidence for an N-shaped relationship between development and regional inequality. Resources, mobility, trade openness, aid, federalism and human capital are also very important.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0014-2921 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3001  
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Author Fabian, M.; Lessmann, C.; Sofke, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Natural disasters and regional development – the case of earthquakes Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Environment and Development Economics Abbreviated Journal Envir. Dev. Econ.  
  Volume 24 Issue 5 Pages 479-505  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract We analyze the impact of earthquakes on nighttime lights at a sub-national level, i.e., on grids of different size. We argue that existing studies on the impact of natural disasters on economic development have several important limitations, both at the level of the outcome variable as well as at the level of the independent variable, e.g., the timing of an event and the measuring of its intensity. We aim to overcome these limitations by using geophysical event data on earthquakes together with satellite nighttime lights. Using panel fixed effects regressions covering the entire world for the period 1992–2013, we find that earthquakes reduce both light growth rates and light levels significantly. The effects persist for approximately 5 years, but we find no long-run effects. Effects are stronger the smaller the area of a unit of observation. National institutions and economic conditions are relevant moderating factors.  
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  ISSN 1355-770X ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3000  
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Author Määttä, I.; Lessmann, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Human Lights Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 11 Issue 19 Pages 2194  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Satellite nighttime light data open new opportunities for economic research. The data are objective and suitable for the study of regions at various territorial levels. Given the lack of reliable official data, nightlights are often a proxy for economic activity, particularly in developing countries. However, the commonly used product, Stable Lights, has difficulty separating background noise from economic activity at lower levels of light intensity. The problem is rooted in the aim of separating transient light from stable lights, even though light from economic activity can also be transient. We propose an alternative filtering process that aims to identify lights emitted by human beings. We train a machine learning algorithm to learn light patterns in and outside built-up areas using Global Human Settlements Layer (GHSL) data. Based on predicted probabilities, we include lights in those places with a high likelihood of being man-made. We show that using regional light characteristics in the process increases the accuracy of predictions at the cost of introducing a mechanical spatial correlation. We create two alternative products as proxies of economic activity. Global Human Lights minimizes the bias from using regional information, while Local Human Lights maximizes accuracy. The latter shows that we can improve the detection of human-generated light, especially in Africa.  
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  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2999  
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