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Author Porcheret, K.; Wald, L.; Fritschi, L.; Gerkema, M.; Gordijn, M.; Merrrow, M.; Rajaratnam, S.M.W.; Rock, D.; Sletten, T.L.; Warman, G.; Wulff, K.; Roenneberg, T.; Foster, R.G.
Title Chronotype and environmental light exposure in a student population Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int
Volume 35 Issue 10 Pages 1365-1374
Keywords Human Health
Abstract In humans and most other species, changes in the intensity and duration of light provide a critical set of signals for the synchronisation of the circadian system to the astronomical day. The timing of activity within the 24 h day defines an individual's chronotype, i.e. morning, intermediate or evening type. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between environmental light exposure, due to geographical location, on the chronotype of university students. Over 6 000 university students from cities in the Northern Hemisphere (Oxford, Munich and Groningen) and Southern Hemisphere (Perth, Melbourne and Auckland) completed the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire. In parallel, light measures (daily irradiance, timing of sunrise and sunset) were compiled from satellite or ground stations at each of these locations. Our data shows that later mid-sleep point on free days (corrected for oversleep on weekends MFSsc) is associated with (i) residing further from the equator, (ii) a later sunset, (iii) spending more time outside and (iv) waking from sleep significantly after sunrise. However, surprisingly, MSFsc did not correlate with daily light intensity at the different geographical locations. Although these findings appear to contradict earlier studies suggesting that in the wider population increased light exposure is associated with an earlier chronotype, our findings are derived exclusively from a student population aged between 17 and 26 years. We therefore suggest that the age and occupation of our population increase the likelihood that these individuals will experience relatively little light exposure in the morning whilst encountering more light exposure later in the day, when light has a delaying effect upon the circadian system.
Address a Sleep and Circadian Neuroscience Institute (SCNi), Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences , University of Oxford , Oxford , UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language (up) Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29913073 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1962
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Author Lu, Y.; Coops, N.C.
Title Bright lights, big city: Causal effects of population and GDP on urban brightness Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 13 Issue 7 Pages e0199545
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Cities are arguably both the cause, and answer, to societies' current sustainability issues. Urbanization is the interplay between a city's physical growth and its socio-economic development, both of which consume a substantial amount of energy and resources. Knowledge of the underlying driver(s) of urban expansion facilitates not only academic research but, more importantly, bridges the gap between science, policy drafting, and practical urban management. An increasing number of researchers are recognizing the benefits of innovative remotely sensed datasets, such as nighttime lights data (NTL), as a proxy to map urbanization and subsequently examine the driving socio-economic variables in cities. We further these approaches, by taking a trans-pacific view, and examine how an array of socio-economic ind0icators of 25 culturally and economically important urban hubs relate to long term patterns in NTL for the past 21 years. We undertake a classic econometric approach-panel causality tests which allow analysis of the causal relationships between NTL and socio-economic development across the region. The panel causality test results show a contrasting effect of population and gross domestic product (GDP) on NTL in fast, and slowly, changing cities. Information derived from this study quantitatively chronicles urban activities in the pan-Pacific region and potentially offers data for studies that spatially track local progress of sustainable urban development goals.
Address Integrated Remote Sensing Studio, Forest Recourses Management, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language (up) Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29995923 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1963
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Author Dominoni, D.M.; de Jong, M.; Bellingham, M.; O'Shaughnessy, P.; van Oers, K.; Robinson, J.; Smith, B.; Visser, M.E.; Helm, B.
Title Dose-response effects of light at night on the reproductive physiology of great tits (Parus major): Integrating morphological analyses with candidate gene expression Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol
Volume in press Issue Pages in press
Keywords Animals
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is increasingly recognized as a potential threat to wildlife and ecosystem health. Among the ecological effects of ALAN, changes in reproductive timing are frequently reported, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are still poorly understood. Here, we experimentally investigated these mechanisms by assessing dose-dependent photoperiodic responses to ALAN in the great tit (Parus major). We individually exposed photosensitive male birds to one of three nocturnal light levels (0.5, 1.5, and 5 lux), or to a dark control. Subsequent histological and molecular analyses on their testes indicated a dose-dependent reproductive response to ALAN. Specifically, different stages of gonadal growth were activated after exposure to different levels of light at night. mRNA transcript levels of genes linked to the development of germ cells (stra8 and spo11) were increased under 0.5 lux compared to the dark control. The 0.5 and 1.5 lux groups showed slight increases in testis size and transcript levels associated with steroid synthesis (lhr and hsd3b1) and spermatogenesis (fshr, wt1, sox9, and cldn11), although spermatogenesis was not detected in histological analysis. In contrast, all birds under 5 lux had 10 to 30 times larger testes than birds in all other groups, with a parallel strong increase in mRNA transcript levels and clear signs of spermatogenesis. Across treatments, the volume of the testes was generally a good predictor of testicular transcript levels. Overall, our findings indicate that even small changes in nocturnal light intensity can increase, or decrease, effects on the reproductive physiology of wild organisms.
Address GELIFES, Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language (up) Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2471-5638 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30058288 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1964
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Author Schuler, L.D.; Schatz, R.; Berweger, C.D.
Title From global radiance to an increased local political awareness of light pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Environmental Science & Policy Abbreviated Journal Environmental Science & Policy
Volume 89 Issue Pages 142-152
Keywords Remote Sensing; Public Safety; Animals
Abstract We present a novel transparent method to analyze measurements of the Suomi NPP (Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership) satellite in night vision, into luminous intensity and luminance on the community level, with a special focus to address light planners and non-experts, and for the first time, to further address politicians, decision-makers and law-makers, and governmental agencies. We checked the propagated efficiency of road lighting and its impact on luminous flux, and identified a waste of light emissions in the largest city of Switzerland, Zurich. We looked at security (issues like criminal acts) and found no correlation with communities’ luminous intensity. We assessed road safety (accidents) against local luminance and found no evidence of darkness being more risky when the overall distribution of illuminance on roads is considered. We screened crayfish habitats in the Canton of Zurich against local illuminance and found clear evidence of preferred darkness for the living. Based on this finding, we propose an upper limit for light immissions in the crayfish habitats. These four analyses have been chosen to demonstrate the usefulness of Suomi NPP's coverage in combination with our approach. We could apply it to ecological, social and economical topics. We hope others will follow and we can draw more attention of governments to take action to reduce the light pollution on local levels, like Langnau am Albis of Switzerland has exemplified.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language (up) Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1462-9011 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1965
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Author Grubisic, M.
Title Waters under Artificial Lights: Does Light Pollution Matter for Aquatic Primary Producers? Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin Abbreviated Journal
Volume 27 Issue 3 Pages 76-81
Keywords Ecology
Abstract Bright night lights have become a symbol of development and prosperity in the modern world. But have you ever wondered how artificial light at night (ALAN) may be affecting living beings in our cities, and how it may be affecting us? As artificial illumination is transforming nocturnal environments around the world, light pollution associated with its use is becoming a topic of increasing interest in the scientific and public communities. Light pollution disrupts natural light regimes in many regions of the world, raising concerns about ecological and health impacts of this novel anthropogenic pressure. Most obviously, ALAN can influence night‐active animals in urban and suburban areas, and most research in this growing field focuses on terrestrial organisms such as bats, birds, and insects. Effects on aquatic ecosystems are much less known. In particular, aquatic primary producers, such as microalgae, cyanobacteria, and plants, have rarely been studied despite their critical positioning in the base of aquatic food webs and the fundamental role that light plays in their ecology. For primary producers, light is a key source of both energy and environmental information; it influences their growth, production, and community structure. ALAN has therefore a large potential to influence their communities and induce bottom‐up changes to aquatic ecosystems and ecosystem functions.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language (up) Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1966
Permanent link to this record