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Author Grunst, M.L.; Raap, T.; Grunst, A.S.; Pinxten, R.; Eens, M.
Title (up) Artificial light at night does not affect telomere shortening in a developing free-living songbird: A field experiment Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Science of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Science of The Total Environment
Volume 662 Issue Pages 266-275
Keywords Animals; birds; Great tit; Parus major; telomere shortening; Stress
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasingly pervasive anthropogenic disturbance factor. ALAN can seriously disrupt physiological systems that follow circadian rhythms, and may be particularly influential early in life, when developmental trajectories are sensitive to stressful conditions. Using great tits (Parus major) as a model species, we experimentally examined how ALAN affects physiological stress in developing nestlings. We used a repeated-measure design to assess effects of ALAN on telomere shortening, body mass, tarsus length and body condition. Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences that protect chromosomes from damage and malfunction. Early-life telomere shortening can be accelerated by environmental stressors, and has been linked to later-life declines in survival and reproduction. We also assayed nitric oxide, as an additional metric of physiological stress, and determined fledging success. Change in body condition between day 8 and 15 differed according to treatment. Nestlings exposed to ALAN displayed a trend towards a decline in condition, whereas control nestlings displayed a trend towards increased condition. This pattern was driven by a greater increase in tarsus length relative to mass in nestlings exposed to ALAN. Nestlings in poorer condition and nestlings that were smaller than their nest mates had shorter telomeres. However, exposure to ALAN was unrelated to telomere shortening, and also had no effect on nitric oxide concentrations or fledging success. Thus, exposure to ALAN may not have led to sufficient stress to induce telomere shortening. Indeed, plasticity in other physiological systems could allow nestlings to maintain telomere length despite moderate stress. Alternatively, the cascade of physiological and behavioral responses associated with light exposure may have no net effect on telomere dynamics.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2161
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Author Steell, S.C.; Cooke, S.J.; Eliason, E.J.
Title (up) Artificial light at night does not alter heart rate or locomotor behaviour in Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus): insights into light pollution and physiological disturbance using biologgers Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Conservation Physiology Abbreviated Journal Conserv Physiol
Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages coaa097
Keywords Animals; accelerometer; biologging; heart rate; light pollution; spiny lobster; stress
Abstract Light pollution is a rapidly growing threat to biodiversity, with many unknown or poorly understood effects on species and ecosystems spanning terrestrial and aquatic environments. Relative to other taxa, the effects of artificial light at night on aquatic invertebrates are poorly understood, despite the abundance and integral significance of invertebrates to marine and freshwater ecosystems. We affixed heart rate and acceleration biologgers to adult Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus), an ecologically, culturally and economically significant species in the western Atlantic ocean, to test the effect of artificial light at night on this species' physiology and behaviour relative to appropriate controls. The experiment was conducted in a simulated reef mesocosm in The Bahamas with incandescent lighting used to illuminate it at 1 lux, approximating light levels offshore of urban areas. In the conditions tested here, artificial light at night was found to have no effect on heart rate or locomotor activity in P. argus. We observed a dissociation between activity and heart rate at both short-term and long-term temporal scales. Lobsters were more active at night and nocturnal activity was higher in trials closer to new moon; however, heart rate did not vary with diel or lunar cycle. There was less than 8% difference between daytime and night time average heart rate despite the average percentage of time spent active almost tripling in nights versus days, to 19.5% from 7.2%, respectively. Our findings suggest P. argus may have some resilience to low levels of light pollution, which warrants further research on aspects of this species' life history, performance and fitness in the face of this potential anthropogenic disturbance.
Address Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA; steell ( at ) ualberta.ca
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Oxford Academic Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2051-1434 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:33304586; PMCID:PMC7720088 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 3378
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Author Maggi, E.; Bongiorni, L.; Fontanini, D.; Capocchi, A.; Dal Bello, M.; Giacomelli, A.; Benedetti‐Cecchi, L.
Title (up) Artificial light at night erases positive interactions across trophic levels Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Functional Ecology Abbreviated Journal Funct Ecol
Volume in press Issue Pages 1365-2435.13485
Keywords Ecology; Bacteria; Ecosystems
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is one of the most recently recognized sources of anthropogenic disturbance, with potentially severe effects on biological systems that are still to be fully explored. Among marine ecosystems, high shore habitats are those more likely to be impacted by ALAN, due to a more intense exposition to outdoor nocturnal lightings (mostly from lamps along coastal streets and promenades, or within harbors, ports and marinas).

2.By performing in situ nocturnal manipulations of a direct source of white LED light and presence of herbivores in a Mediterranean high‐shore habitat, we assessed the interactive effects of light pollution and grazing on two key functional components of the epilithic microbial community (the cyanobacteria, as the main photoautotrophic component, and the other bacteria, mainly dominated by heterotrophs) developing on rocky shores.

3.Results showed an unexpected increase in the diversity of epilithic bacterial biofilm at unlit sites in the presence of grazers, that was more evident on the other (mainly heterotrophic) bacterial component, when giving weight to more abundant families. This effect was likely related to the mechanical removal of dead cells through the grazing activity of consumers. ALAN significantly modified this scenario, by reducing the density of grazers and thus erasing their effects on bacteria, and by increasing the diversity of more abundant cyanobacterial families.

4.Overall, direct and indirect effects on ALAN resulted in a significant increase in the diversity of the photoautotrophic component and a decrease in the heterotrophic one, likely affecting key ecosystem functions acting on rocky shore habitats.

5.ALAN may represent a threat for natural systems through the annihilation of positive interactions across trophic levels, potentially impairing the relationship between biodiversity and functioning of ecosystems and interacting with other global and local stressors currently impinging on coastal areas.
Address Dip. di Biologia, CoNISMa, Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy; elena.maggi(at)unipi.it
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher British Ecological Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0269-8463 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2746
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Author Maggi, E.; Bongiorni, L.; Fontanini, D.; Capocchi, A.; Dal Bello, M.; Giacomelli, A.; Benedetti‐Cecchi, L.; Fox, C.
Title (up) Artificial light at night erases positive interactions across trophic levels Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Functional Ecology Abbreviated Journal Funct Ecol
Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages 694-706
Keywords Ecology; artificial light at night; coastal assemblages; cyanobacteria; epilithic biofilm; herbivores; heterotrophic bacteria; positive effects
Abstract 1. Artificial light at night (ALAN) is one of the most recently recognized sources of anthropogenic disturbance, with potentially severe effects on biological systems that are still to be fully explored. Among marine ecosystems, high‐shore habitats are those more likely to be impacted by ALAN, due to a more intense exposition to outdoor nocturnal lightings (mostly from lamps along coastal streets and promenades, or within harbours, ports and marinas).

2. By performing in situ nocturnal manipulations of a direct source of white LED light and presence of herbivores in a Mediterranean high‐shore habitat, we assessed the interactive effects of light pollution and grazing on two key functional components of the epilithic microbial community (the cyanobacteria, as the main photoautotrophic component, and the other bacteria, mainly dominated by heterotrophs) developing on rocky shores.

3. Results showed an unexpected increase in the diversity of epilithic bacterial biofilm at unlit sites in the presence of grazers, that was more evident on the other (mainly heterotrophic) bacterial component, when giving weight to more abundant families. This effect was likely related to the mechanical removal of dead cells through the grazing activity of consumers. ALAN significantly modified this scenario, by reducing the density of grazers and thus erasing their effects on bacteria, and by increasing the diversity of more abundant cyanobacterial families.

4. Overall, direct and indirect effects on ALAN resulted in a significant increase in the diversity of the photoautotrophic component and a decrease in the heterotrophic one, likely affecting key ecosystem functions acting on rocky shore habitats.

5. ALAN may represent a threat for natural systems through the annihilation of positive interactions across trophic levels, potentially impairing the relationship between biodiversity and functioning of ecosystems and interacting with other global and local stressors currently impinging on coastal areas.
Address Dip. di Biologia, CoNISMa, Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy; elena.maggi ( at ) unipi.it
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher British Ecological Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0269-8463 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 3307
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Rund, S.S.C.; Labb, L.F.; Benefiel, O.M.; Duffield, G.E.
Title (up) Artificial Light at Night Increases Aedes aegypti Mosquito Biting Behavior with Implications for Arboviral Disease Transmission Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Abbreviated Journal Am J Trop Med Hyg
Volume 103 Issue 6 Pages 2450-2452
Keywords Animals; Insects; Aedes/*radiation effects; Animals; Arbovirus Infections/*transmission; Circadian Rhythm/*radiation effects; Feeding Behavior/*radiation effects; Humans; Insect Bites and Stings; *Lighting; Mosquito Control; Mosquito Vectors; mosquitos; Aedes aegypti
Abstract Aedes aegypti mosquito is a major vector of arboviral disease. Here, we report that the biting behavior of normally daytime active anthropophilic Ae. aegypti mosquitoes on human hosts is abnormally increased at night following exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN). Biting was examined using a human host assay where caged mosquitoes were exposed to a human arm and blood-feeding measured. Mosquitoes were tested during the daytime, nighttime, or challenged with ALAN. As predicted from the Ae. aegypti diel/circadian biting cycle, maximal biting occurred during daytime and lowest level occurred at night. Biting in the ALAN group was increased compared with time-matched nighttime controls. These data reveal that exposure to ALAN increases nocturnal blood-feeding behavior. This finding highlights the concern that globally increasing levels of light pollution could be impacting arboviral disease transmission, such as dengue fever and Zika, and has implications for application of countermeasures for mosquito vector control.
Address Department of Biological Sciences, Galvin Life Science Center, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana; duffield.2 ( at ) nd.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0002-9637 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:33069264; PMCID:PMC7695055 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 3371
Permanent link to this record