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Author Jørgensen, L. D., Tambo, T., & Xydis, G.
Title (up) An efficiency evaluation of radar‐based obstruction lights controlling at a wind turbine test site Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Wind Energy Abbreviated Journal
Volume 22 Issue 4 Pages
Keywords Lighting; Public Safety; Planning
Abstract In this study, an obstruction lights controlling (OLC) system based on a Terma SCANTER 5000 radar has been installed at a test centre for large wind turbines. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the OLC system and to improve this efficiency by introducing new technological features. Once the first assessment had been carried out, new software with improved tracking functionalities was installed to the radar. With the new software, a second assessment was made to compare the new performance to the old one. To analyse the tracks, geographic information system (GIS) tools have been used. A new MATLAB script was developed to automate the assessment as well as to gather data on the tracks. These data sets were used to improve the system performance by introducing a radar cross section (RCS)/speed filter. The outcome of the study is a filter that can be implemented on the radar system to improve the efficiency of the system and reduce the time that obstruction lights need to be on for by 62.59%, without compromising the integrity of the system.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2298
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Author Bailey, L.A.; Brigham, R.M.; Bohn, S.J.; Boyles, J.G.; Smit, B.
Title (up) An experimental test of the allotonic frequency hypothesis to isolate the effects of light pollution on bat prey selection Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Oecologia Abbreviated Journal Oecologia
Volume 190 Issue 2 Pages 367–374
Keywords Animals; Ecology; bats; moths; insects; mammals
Abstract Artificial lights may be altering interactions between bats and moth prey. According to the allotonic frequency hypothesis (AFH), eared moths are generally unavailable as prey for syntonic bats (i.e., bats that use echolocation frequencies between 20 and 50 kHz within the hearing range of eared moths) due to the moths' ability to detect syntonic bat echolocation. Syntonic bats therefore feed mainly on beetles, flies, true bugs, and non-eared moths. The AFH is expected to be violated around lights where eared moths are susceptible to exploitation by syntonic bats because moths' evasive strategies become less effective. The hypothesis has been tested to date almost exclusively in areas with permanent lighting, where the effects of lights on bat diets are confounded with other aspects of human habitat alteration. We undertook diet analysis in areas with short-term, localized artificial lighting to isolate the effects of artificial lighting and determine if syntonic and allotonic bats (i.e., bats that use echolocation frequencies outside the hearing range of eared moths) consumed more moths under conditions of artificial lights than in natural darkness. We found that syntonic bats increased their consumption of moth prey under experimentally lit conditions, likely owing to a reduction in the ability of eared moths to evade the bats. Eared moths may increase in diets of generalist syntonic bats foraging around artificial light sources, as opposed to allotonic species and syntonic species with a more specialized diet.
Address Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa. b.smit@ru.ac.za
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0029-8549 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31139944 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2511
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Author Kronauer, R.E.; St Hilaire, M.A.; Rahman, S.A.; Czeisler, C.A.; Klerman, E.B.
Title (up) An Exploration of the Temporal Dynamics of Circadian Resetting Responses to Short- and Long-Duration Light Exposures: Cross-Species Consistencies and Differences Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms
Volume 34 Issue 5 Pages 497-514
Keywords Animals; Human Health
Abstract Light is the most effective environmental stimulus for shifting the mammalian circadian pacemaker. Numerous studies have been conducted across multiple species to delineate wavelength, intensity, duration, and timing contributions to the response of the circadian pacemaker to light. Recent studies have revealed a surprising sensitivity of the human circadian pacemaker to short pulses of light. Such responses have challenged photon counting-based theories of the temporal dynamics of the mammalian circadian system to both short- and long-duration light stimuli. Here, we collate published light exposure data from multiple species, including gerbil, hamster, mouse, and human, to investigate these temporal dynamics and explore how the circadian system integrates light information at both short- and long-duration time scales to produce phase shifts. Based on our investigation of these data sets, we propose 3 new interpretations: (1) intensity and duration are independent factors of total phase shift magnitude, (2) the possibility of a linear/log temporal function of light duration that is universal for all intensities for durations less than approximately 12 min, and (3) a potential universal minimum light duration of ~0.7 sec that describes a “dead zone” of light stimulus. We show that these properties appear to be consistent across mammalian species. These interpretations, if confirmed by further experiments, have important practical implications in terms of understanding the underlying physiology and for the design of lighting regimens to reset the mammalian circadian pacemaker.
Address Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Sage Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31368391 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2600
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Author Bielli, A.; Alfaro-Shigueto, J.; Doherty, P.D.; Godley, B.J.; Ortiz, C.; Pasara, A.; Wang, J.H.; Mangel, J.C.
Title (up) An illuminating idea to reduce bycatch in the Peruvian small-scale gillnet fishery Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation
Volume in press Issue Pages 108277
Keywords Animals; oceans; bycatch; artificial illumination; bycatch reduction technologies
Abstract Found in the coastal waters of all continents, gillnets are the largest component of small-scale fisheries for many countries. Numerous studies show that these fisheries often have high bycatch rates of threatened marine species such as sea turtles, small cetaceans and seabirds, resulting in possible population declines of these non-target groups. However, few solutions to reduce gillnet bycatch have been developed. Recent bycatch reduction technologies (BRTs) use sensory cues to alert non-target species to the presence of fishing gear. In this study we deployed light emitting diodes (LEDs) – a visual cue – on the floatlines of paired gillnets (control vs illuminated net) during 864 fishing sets on small-scale vessels departing from three Peruvian ports between 2015 and 2018. Bycatch probability per set for sea turtles, cetaceans and seabirds as well as catch per unit effort (CPUE) of target species were analysed for illuminated and control nets using a generalised linear mixed-effects model (GLMM). For illuminated nets, bycatch probability per set was reduced by up to 74.4 % for sea turtles and 70.8 % for small cetaceans in comparison to non-illuminated, control nets. For seabirds, nominal BPUEs decreased by 84.0 % in the presence of LEDs. Target species CPUE was not negatively affected by the presence of LEDs. This study highlights the efficacy of net illumination as a multi-taxa BRT for small-scale gillnet fisheries in Peru. These results are promising given the global ubiquity of small-scale net fisheries, the relatively low cost of LEDs and the current lack of alternate solutions to bycatch.
Address Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9FE, UK; bielli.alessandra(at)gmail.com
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2779
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Author Xu, P.; Wang, Q.; Jin, J.; Jin, P.
Title (up) An increase in nighttime light detected for protected areas in mainland China based on VIIRS DNB data Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Ecological Indicators Abbreviated Journal Ecological Indicators
Volume 107 Issue Pages 105615
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Protected areas, a globally accepted conservation strategy, play a fundamental role in biodiversity and species conservation. There are increasing concerns about the ecological influence of nighttime light within protected areas due to the emergence of more light-related ecological issues. Previous approaches for detecting nighttime light mainly used the traditional data source released by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS), but its coarse spatial resolution and limited radiometric resolution dramatically hamper prompt detection. In this study, we used data from a new source, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Day-Night Band (VIIRS DNB) to detect nighttime light disturbance within protected areas of mainland China. Protected areas extracted from Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (OLI-TIRS) images served as ground truths to assess detection accuracy. We found that the VIIRS DNB data provided more and better details compared with the traditional DMSP/OLS data. Pixel-based trend analysis clearly indicated that within the protected areas lighted pixels existed extensively and increased significantly from 2012 to 2017. This study provides a new solution to better understand human activities within protected areas.
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ISSN 1470160X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2612
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