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Author Cottam, C. openurl 
  Title (up) A shower of grebes Type Journal Article
  Year 1929 Publication The Condor Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 31 Issue 1 Pages 80-81  
  Keywords Animals; Birds  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2424  
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Author Treanor, P. J. url  openurl
  Title (up) A simple propagation law for artificial night-sky illumination Type Journal Article
  Year 1973 Publication The Observatory Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 93 Issue Pages 117-120  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract The problem of locating new large astronomical observatories in sites which have a suitably dark night sky (artificial excess of the order of omi) is becoming increasingly difficult in Europe and the United States, on account of extensive urban development, the high luminous efficiency of modern discharge lighting, and the scattering of light in an atmosphere contaminated by aerosols. To investigate the artificial illumination of the sky over large regions on the basis of necessarily limited observations, one needs an expression for the zenith brightness produced by towns of known site and distance.

The exact derivation of such a law is exceedingly complex, involving the computation of the radiation transfer in an atmosphere with absorption, multiple scattering, and complicated physical and geometrical parameters. Notwithstanding these difficulties, it is possible to obtain a useful physical insight into the general form of this law by considering a very simplified model, consisting of a homogeneous atmosphere, in which vertical heights are small in relation to the horizontal distances between town and observatory, and which the scattering is limited to a cone of small angle whose axis lies in the direction of the incident beam. The limited scale height and optical thickness of the real atmosphere, and the forward-scattering characteristics of aerosols lend some plausibility to these simplifications.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2633  
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Author Cao, X.; Hu, Y.; Zhu, X.; Shi, F.; Zhuo, L.; Chen, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A simple self-adjusting model for correcting the blooming effects in DMSP-OLS nighttime light images Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment  
  Volume 224 Issue Pages 401-411  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Night-time light (NTL) data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operation Linescan System (OLS) provide important observations of human activities; however, DMSP-OLS NTL data suffer from problems such as saturation and blooming. This research developed a self-adjusting model (SEAM) to correct blooming effects in DMSP-OLS NTL data based on a spatial response function and without using any ancillary data. By assuming that the pixels adjacent to the background contain no lights (i.e., pseudo light pixels, PLPs), the blooming effect intensity, a parameter in the SEAM model, can be estimated by pixel-based regression using PLPs and their neighboring light sources. SEAM was applied to all of China, and its performance was assessed for twelve cities with different population sizes. The results show that SEAM can largely reduce the blooming effect in the original DMSP-OLS dataset and enhance its quality. The images after blooming effect correction have higher spatial similarity with Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) images and higher spatial variability than the original DMSP-OLS data. We also found that the average effective blooming distance is approximately 3.5 km in China, which may be amplified if the city is surrounded by water surfaces, and that the blooming effect intensity is positively correlated to atmospheric quality. The effectiveness of the proposed model will improve the capacity of DMSP-OLS images for mapping the urban extent and modeling socioeconomic parameters.  
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  ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2239  
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Author Li, X; Zhou, Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A Stepwise Calibration of Global DMSP/OLS Stable Nighttime Light Data (1992–2013) Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 9 Issue 6 Pages 637  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)/Operational Linescan System (OLS) stable nighttime light (NTL) data provide a wide range of potentials for studying global and regional dynamics, such as urban sprawl and electricity consumption. However, due to the lack of on-board calibration, it requires inter-annual calibration for these practical applications. In this study, we proposed a stepwise calibration approach to generate a temporally consistent NTL time series from 1992 to 2013. First, the temporal inconsistencies in the original NTL time series were identified. Then, a stepwise calibration scheme was developed to systematically improve the over- and under- estimation of NTL images derived from particular satellites and years, by making full use of the temporally neighbored image as a reference for calibration. After the stepwise calibration, the raw NTL series were improved with a temporally more consistent trend. Meanwhile, the magnitude of the global sum of NTL is maximally maintained in our results, as compared to the raw data, which outperforms previous conventional calibration approaches. The normalized difference index indicates that our approach can achieve a good agreement between two satellites in the same year. In addition, the analysis between the calibrated NTL time series and other socioeconomic indicators (e.g., gross domestic product and electricity consumption) confirms the good performance of the proposed stepwise calibration. The calibrated NTL time series can serve as useful inputs for NTL related dynamic studies, such as global urban extent change and energy consumption.  
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  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2492  
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Author Lee, S-H.; Lim, H-S. url  openurl
  Title (up) A Study on Sky Light Pollution based on Sky Glow in Jeju Island Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 34 Issue 4 Pages 83-91  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract Artificial lighting contributes greatly to developing civilizations. It allows daytime activities to continue throughout the dark hours of the day and thus increasing work productivity as well as allowing people to enjoy nighttime activities. In addition, artificial lighting is used to beautify landscapes, architectural monuments, and thus highlighting the social-economic development of a given place. However, excessive and improper usage of artificial lighting can lead to light pollution. Light pollution is a serious issue that is detrimental to human health. It has been linked to a number of health conditions including sleep disorder, visual discomfort as well as cancer. The effects of light pollution extend throughout the entire ecosystem, affecting both plants and animals. Furthermore, sky-glow from light pollution hinders astronomical observation. The current paper presents a study conducted on lit environment of a nightscape. The quality of the sky was measured in 144 spots using Sky Quality Meter (SQM) devices. The measured spots were chosen on the basis of land use as well as distance from the Halla Mountain.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2105  
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