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Author Touzot, M.; Lengagne, T.; Secondi, J.; Desouhant, E.; Théry, M.; Dumet, A.; Duchamp, C.; Mondy, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Artificial light at night alters the sexual behaviour and fertilisation success of the common toad Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Environmental Pollution Abbreviated Journal Environmental Pollution  
  Volume 259 Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Artificial Light At Night (ALAN) is an emerging pollution, that dramatically keeps on increasing worldwide due to urbanisation and transport infrastructure development. In 2016, it nearly affected 23% of the Earth’s surface. To date, all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems have been affected. The disruption of natural light cycles due to ALAN is particularly expected for nocturnal species, which require dark periods to forage, move, and reproduce. Apart from chiropterans, amphibians contain the largest proportion of nocturnal species among vertebrates exhibiting an unfavourable conservation status in most parts of the world and living in ALAN polluted areas. Despite the growing number of studies on this subject, our knowledge on the direct influence of nocturnal lighting on amphibians is still scarce. To better understand the consequences of ALAN on the breeding component of amphibian fitness, we experimentally exposed male breeding common toads (Bufo bufo) to ecologically relevant light intensities of 0.01 (control), 0.1 or 5 lux for 12 days. At mating, exposed males took longer than controls to form an amplexus, i.e. to pair with a female, and broke amplexus before egg laying, while controls never did. These behavioural changes were associated with fitness alteration. The fertilisation rate of 5 lux-exposed males was reduced by 25%. Salivary testosterone, which is usually correlated with reproductive behaviours, was not altered by ALAN. Our study demonstrates that ALAN can affect the breeding behaviour of anuran species and reduce one component of their fitness. Given the growing importance of ALAN, more work is needed to understand its long-term consequences on the behaviour and physiology of individuals. It appears essential to identify deleterious effects for animal populations and propose appropriate management solutions in an increasingly brighter world.  
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  ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2813  
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Author Gaston, M.S.; Pereyra, L.C.; Vaira, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Artificial light at night and captivity induces differential effects on leukocyte profile, body condition, and erythrocyte size of a diurnal toad Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals; Amphibians; Toads  
  Abstract Light pollution or artificial lighting at night (ALAN) is an emerging threat to biodiversity that can disrupt physiological processes and behaviors. Because ALAN stressful effects are little studied in diurnal amphibian species, we investigated if chronic ALAN exposure affects the leukocyte profile, body condition, and blood cell sizes of a diurnal toad. We hand-captured male toads of Melanophryniscus rubriventris in Angosto de Jaire (Jujuy, Argentina). We prepared blood smears from three groups of toads: “field” (toads processed in the field immediately after capture), “natural light” (toads kept in the laboratory under captivity with natural photoperiod), and “constant light” (toads kept in the laboratory under captivity with constant photoperiod/ALAN). We significantly observed higher neutrophil proportions and neutrophils to lymphocytes ratio in toads under constant light treatment. In addition, we observed significantly better body condition and higher erythrocyte size in field toads compared with captive toads. In summary, ALAN can trigger a leukocyte response to stress in males of the diurnal toad M. rubriventris. In addition, captivity can affect the body condition and erythrocyte size of these toads.  
  Address Instituto de Ecorregiones Andinas (INECOA), Universidad Nacional de Jujuy, CONICET, San Salvador de Jujuy, Argentina  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2471-5638 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30320969 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2049  
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Author Hopkins, G.R.; Gaston, K.J.; Visser, M.E.; Elgar, M.A.; Jones, T.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Artificial light at night as a driver of evolution across urban-rural landscapes Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment Abbreviated Journal Front Ecol Environ  
  Volume 16 Issue 8 Pages 472-479  
  Keywords Ecology, Commentary  
  Abstract Light is fundamental to biological systems, affecting the daily rhythms of bacteria, plants, and animals. Artificial light at night (ALAN), a ubiquitous feature of urbanization, interferes with these rhythms and has the potential to exert strong selection pressures on organisms living in urban environments. ALAN also fragments landscapes, altering the movement of animals into and out of artificially lit habitats. Although research has documented phenotypic and genetic differentiation between urban and rural organisms, ALAN has rarely been considered as a driver of evolution. We argue that the fundamental importance of light to biological systems, and the capacity for ALAN to influence multiple processes contributing to evolution, makes this an important driver of evolutionary change, one with the potential to explain broad patterns of population differentiation across urban–rural landscapes. Integrating ALAN's evolutionary potential into urban ecology is a targeted and powerful approach to understanding the capacity for life to adapt to an increasingly urbanized world.  
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  ISSN 1540-9295 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2073  
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Author Fobert, E.K.; Burke da Silva, K.; Swearer, S.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Artificial light at night causes reproductive failure in clownfish Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Biology Letters Abbreviated Journal Biol. Lett.  
  Volume 15 Issue 7 Pages 20190272  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract The Earth is getting brighter at night, as artificial light at night (ALAN) continues to increase and extend its reach. Despite recent recognition of the damaging impacts of ALAN on terrestrial ecosystems, research on ALAN in marine systems is comparatively lacking. To further our understanding of the impacts of ALAN on marine organisms, this study examines how the reproductive fitness of the common clownfish Amphiprion ocellaris is influenced by the presence of ALAN. We assessed how exposure to low levels of ALAN affects (i) frequency of spawning, (ii) egg fertilization success, and (iii) hatching success of A. ocellaris under control (12 : 12 day–night) and treatment (12 : 12 day–ALAN) light regimes. While we found exposure to ALAN had no impact on the frequency of spawning or fertilization success, ALAN had dramatic effects on hatching. Amphiprion ocellaris eggs incubated in the presence of ALAN simply did not hatch, resulting in zero survivorship of offspring. These findings suggest ALAN can significantly reduce reproductive fitness in a benthic-spawning reef fish. Further research in this field is necessary to fully understand the extent of this impact on population and community dynamics in the wild.  
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  ISSN 1744-9561 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2562  
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Author Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Cruse, D.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.; Lewis, O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Artificial light at night causes top-down and bottom-up trophic effects on invertebrate populations Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol  
  Volume 55 Issue 6 Pages 2698-2706  
  Keywords Ecology; Animals; Plants  
  Abstract Globally, many ecosystems are exposed to artificial light at night. Nighttime lighting has direct biological impacts on species at all trophic levels. However, the effects of artificial light on biotic interactions remain, for the most part, to be determined.

We exposed experimental mesocosms containing combinations of grassland plants and invertebrate herbivores and predators to illumination at night over a 3‐year period to simulate conditions under different common forms of street lighting.

We demonstrate both top‐down (predation‐controlled) and bottom‐up (resource‐controlled) impacts of artificial light at night in grassland communities. The impacts on invertebrate herbivore abundance were wavelength‐dependent and mediated via other trophic levels.

White LED lighting decreased the abundance of a generalist herbivore mollusc by 55% in the presence of a visual predator, but not in its absence, while monochromatic amber light (with a peak wavelength similar to low‐pressure sodium lighting) decreased abundance of a specialist herbivore aphid (by 17%) by reducing the cover and flower abundance of its main food plant in the system. Artificial white light also significantly increased the food plant's foliar carbon to nitrogen ratio.

We conclude that exposure to artificial light at night can trigger ecological effects spanning trophic levels, and that the nature of such impacts depends on the wavelengths emitted by the lighting technology employed.

Policy implications. Our results confirm that artificial light at night, at illuminance levels similar to roadside vegetation, can have population effects mediated by both top‐down and bottom‐up effects on ecosystems. Given the increasing ubiquity of light pollution at night, these impacts may be widespread in the environment. These results underline the importance of minimizing ecosystem disruption by reducing light pollution in natural and seminatural ecosystems.
 
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2086  
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