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Author Navas Gonzalez, F.J.; Jordana Vidal, J.; Pizarro Inostroza, G.; Arando Arbulu, A.; Delgado Bermejo, J.V. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Can Donkey Behavior and Cognition Be Used to Trace Back, Explain, or Forecast Moon Cycle and Weather Events? Type (down) Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Animals : an Open Access Journal From MDPI Abbreviated Journal Animals (Basel)  
  Volume 8 Issue 11 Pages  
  Keywords Moonlight; Animals  
  Abstract Donkeys have been reported to be highly sensitive to environmental changes. Their 8900-8400-year-old evolution process made them interact with diverse environmental situations that were very distant from their harsh origins. These changing situations not only affect donkeys' short-term behavior but may also determine their long-term cognitive skills from birth. Thus, animal behavior becomes a useful tool to obtain past, present or predict information from the environmental situation of a particular area. We performed an operant conditioning test on 300 donkeys to assess their response type, mood, response intensity, and learning capabilities, while we simultaneously registered 14 categorical environmental factors. We quantified the effect power of such environmental factors on donkey behavior and cognition. We used principal component analysis (CATPCA) to reduce the number of factors affecting each behavioral variable and built categorical regression (CATREG) equations to model for the effects of potential factor combinations. Effect power ranged from 7.9% for the birth season on learning (p < 0.05) to 38.8% for birth moon phase on mood (p < 0.001). CATPCA suggests the percentage of variance explained by a four-dimension-model (comprising the dimensions of response type, mood, response intensity and learning capabilities), is 75.9%. CATREG suggests environmental predictors explain 28.8% of the variability of response type, 37.0% of mood, and 37.5% of response intensity, and learning capabilities.  
  Address The Worldwide Donkey Breeds Project, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba, Spain. juanviagr218@gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2076-2615 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30463193 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2083  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Gonzalez, M.M.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dim Light at Night and Constant Darkness: Two Frequently Used Lighting Conditions That Jeopardize the Health and Well-being of Laboratory Rodents Type (down) Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Frontiers in Neurology Abbreviated Journal Front Neurol  
  Volume 9 Issue Pages 609  
  Keywords Animals; Review  
  Abstract The influence of light on mammalian physiology and behavior is due to the entrainment of circadian rhythms complemented with a direct modulation of light that would be unlikely an outcome of circadian system. In mammals, physiological and behavioral circadian rhythms are regulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. This central control allows organisms to predict and anticipate environmental change, as well as to coordinate different rhythmic modalities within an individual. In adult mammals, direct retinal projections to the SCN are responsible for resetting and synchronizing physiological and behavioral rhythms to the light-dark (LD) cycle. Apart from its circadian effects, light also has direct effects on certain biological functions in such a way that the participation of the SCN would not be fundamental for this network. The objective of this review is to increase awareness, within the scientific community and commercial providers, of the fact that laboratory rodents can experience a number of adverse health and welfare outcomes attributed to commonly-used lighting conditions in animal facilities during routine husbandry and scientific procedures, widely considered as “environmentally friendly.” There is increasing evidence that exposure to dim light at night, as well as chronic constant darkness, challenges mammalian physiology and behavior resulting in disrupted circadian rhythms, neural death, a depressive-behavioral phenotype, cognitive impairment, and the deregulation of metabolic, physiological, and synaptic plasticity in both the short and long terms. The normal development and good health of laboratory rodents requires cyclical light entrainment, adapted to the solar cycle of day and night, with null light at night and safe illuminating qualities during the day. We therefore recommend increased awareness of the limited information available with regards to lighting conditions, and therefore that lighting protocols must be taken into consideration when designing experiments and duly highlighted in scientific papers. This practice will help to ensure the welfare of laboratory animals and increase the likelihood of producing reliable and reproducible results.  
  Address Seccion Cronobiologia y Sueno, Instituto Ferrero de Neurologia y Sueno, Buenos Aires, Argentina  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1664-2295 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30116218; PMCID:PMC6084421 Approved no  
  Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2084  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Eccard, J.A.; Scheffler, I.; Franke, S.; Hoffmann, J.; Leather, S.; Stewart, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Off-grid: solar powered LED illumination impacts epigeal arthropods Type (down) Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Insect Conservation and Diversity Abbreviated Journal Insect Conserv Divers  
  Volume 11 Issue 6 Pages 600-607  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology  
  Abstract Advances in LED technology combined with solar, storable energy bring light to places remote from electricity grids. Worldwide more than 1.3 billion of people are living off‐grid, often in developing regions of high insect biodiversity. In developed countries, dark refuges for wildlife are threatened by ornamental garden lights. Solar powered LEDs (SPLEDs) are cheaply available, dim, and often used to illuminate foot paths, but little is known on their effects on ground living (epigeal) arthropods.

We used off‐the‐shelf garden lamps with a single ‘white’ LED (colour temperature 7250 K) to experimentally investigate effects on attraction and nocturnal activity of ground beetles (Carabidae).

We found two disparate and species‐specific effects of SPLEDs. (i) Some nocturnal, phototactic species were not reducing activity under illumination and were strongly attracted to lamps (>20‐fold increase in captures compared to dark controls). Such species aggregate in lit areas and SPLEDs may become ecological traps, while the species is drawn from nearby, unlit assemblages. (ii) Other nocturnal species were reducing mobility and activity under illumination without being attracted to light, which may cause fitness reduction in lit areas.

Both reactions offer mechanistic explanations on how outdoor illumination can change population densities of specific predatory arthropods, which may have cascading effects on epigeal arthropod assemblages. The technology may thus increase the area of artificial light at night (ALAN) impacting insect biodiversity.

Measures are needed to mitigate effects, such as adjustment of light colour temperature and automated switch‐offs.
 
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 1752458X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2085  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Cruse, D.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.; Lewis, O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light at night causes top-down and bottom-up trophic effects on invertebrate populations Type (down) Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol  
  Volume 55 Issue 6 Pages 2698-2706  
  Keywords Ecology; Animals; Plants  
  Abstract Globally, many ecosystems are exposed to artificial light at night. Nighttime lighting has direct biological impacts on species at all trophic levels. However, the effects of artificial light on biotic interactions remain, for the most part, to be determined.

We exposed experimental mesocosms containing combinations of grassland plants and invertebrate herbivores and predators to illumination at night over a 3‐year period to simulate conditions under different common forms of street lighting.

We demonstrate both top‐down (predation‐controlled) and bottom‐up (resource‐controlled) impacts of artificial light at night in grassland communities. The impacts on invertebrate herbivore abundance were wavelength‐dependent and mediated via other trophic levels.

White LED lighting decreased the abundance of a generalist herbivore mollusc by 55% in the presence of a visual predator, but not in its absence, while monochromatic amber light (with a peak wavelength similar to low‐pressure sodium lighting) decreased abundance of a specialist herbivore aphid (by 17%) by reducing the cover and flower abundance of its main food plant in the system. Artificial white light also significantly increased the food plant's foliar carbon to nitrogen ratio.

We conclude that exposure to artificial light at night can trigger ecological effects spanning trophic levels, and that the nature of such impacts depends on the wavelengths emitted by the lighting technology employed.

Policy implications. Our results confirm that artificial light at night, at illuminance levels similar to roadside vegetation, can have population effects mediated by both top‐down and bottom‐up effects on ecosystems. Given the increasing ubiquity of light pollution at night, these impacts may be widespread in the environment. These results underline the importance of minimizing ecosystem disruption by reducing light pollution in natural and seminatural ecosystems.
 
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2086  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Elvidge, C.D.; Ghosh, T.; Baugh, K.; Zhizhin, M.; Hsu, F.-C.; Katada, N.S.; Penalosa, W.; Hung, B.Q. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Rating the Effectiveness of Fishery Closures With Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Boat Detection Data Type (down) Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Frontiers in Marine Science Abbreviated Journal Front. Mar. Sci.  
  Volume 5 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Fishery closures are widely used to promote the sustainability of fish stocks. Fishery agencies typically have very little data relevant to planning closure enforcement actions and evaluating the effectiveness of closures, due in part to the vast expanse and remote nature of many closures. In some cases the effectiveness of closures can be evaluated using data from GPS based beacons, such as Automatic Identification System (AIS) or Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS) installed on fishing boats. In fisheries where few boats are equipped with AIS or VMS, the rating of closures relies on other data sources capable of detecting or inferring fishing activity. One such source comes from low light imaging data collected by the NASA/NOAA Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), which can detect fishing boats using lights to attract catch. This is a widely used practice in Asia and several other regions. NOAA has developed an automatic system for reporting the locations of VIIRS boat detections with a nominal 4 h temporal latency. VIIRS boat detection alerts are running for more than 900 fishery closures in the Philippines, with email and SMS transmission modes. These alerts are being actively used in the Philippines to plan enforcement actions and there is a growing list of apprehensions that occurred based on tip-offs from VIIRS. The VIIRS boat detection archive extends back to April 2012. A VIIRS closure index (VCI) has been developed to rate the effectiveness of closures on monthly increments in terms of a percentage. The VCI analysis was performed on three types of closures: an ad hoc fishery closure associated with a toxic industrial discharge, a seasonal fishery closure and a permanent closure in restricted coastal waters. The VCI results indicate that it is possible to rank the effectiveness of different closure, year-to-year differences in compliance levels, and to identify closure encroachments which may warrant additional enforcement effort.  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2296-7745 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2087  
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