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Author Min, B.; O'Keeffe, Z.; Zhang, F.
Title Whose Power Gets Cut? Using High-Frequency Satellite Images to Measure Power Supply Irregularity Type (up) Book Whole
Year 2017 Publication Policy Research Working Papers Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract In many parts of the developing world, access to electricity is uneven and inconsistent, characterized by frequent and long hours of power outages. Many countries now engage in systematic load shedding because of persistent power shortages. When and where electricity is provided can have important impacts on welfare and growth. But quantifying those impacts is difficult because utility-level data on power outages are rarely available and not always reliable. This paper introduces a new method of tracking power outages from outer space. This measure identifies outage-prone areas by detecting excess fluctuations in light outputs. To develop these measures, the study processed the complete historical archive of sub-orbital Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) nighttime imagery captured over South Asia on every night since 1993. The analysis computes annual estimates of the Power Supply Irregularity index for all 600,000 villages in India from 1993 to 2013. The Power Supply Irregularity index measures are consistent with ground-based measures of power supply reliability from the Indian Human Development Survey, and with feeder-level outage data from one of the largest utilities in India. The study's methods open new opportunities to study the determinants of power outages as well as their impacts on welfare.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The World Bank Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2109
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Author Wren, W.; Locke, S.
Title Upgraded Rig Lighting Improves Night Time Visibility While Reducing Stray Light and the Threat to Dark Skies in West Texas Type (up) Conference Article
Year 2015 Publication Society of Petroleum Engineers Abbreviated Journal Soc. Petrol. Engr.
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Lighting; outdoor lighting; petroleum; oil and gas; lighting engineering
Abstract McDonald Observatory, part of the University of Texas at Austin, is a world-class astronomical-research facility representing hundreds of millions of dollars of public and private investment that is increasingly threatened by nighttime lighting from oil-and-gas-related activities in and around the Permian Basin. Established in the remote Davis Mountains of West Texas in 1932, the observatory is home to some of the world's largest telescopes and it has continued as a world-renowned research center. Dark night skies are crucial to its mission. Since 2010, however, the sky along the observatory's northern horizon, in the direction of the Permian Basin, has been steadily and rapidly brightening, due to new exploration for oil and gas. The pace has been accelerating: More than 2,000 applications were filed over the past year to drill in the region. In 2011, the State of Texas enacted a law that instructs the seven counties surrounding McDonald Observatory, an area covering some 28,000 square miles, to adopt outdoor lighting ordinances designed to preserve the dark night skies for ongoing astronomical research at the observatory. Most had already done so voluntarily, but additional effort is needed throughout the area to address fast-moving energy-exploration activities.

A joint project between McDonald Observatory and Pioneer Energy Services (PES) has demonstrated that many of the adverse effects of oilfield lighting can be mitigated, without jeopardizing safety, through proper shielding and aiming of light fixtures. Beginning July, 2013, PES granted the observatory access to a working rig, Pioneer Rig #29. Every time the rig moved to a new location, there was an opportunity to install shields, re-aim floodlights, and evaluate effectiveness.

This joint project demonstrated that, in many cases, nighttime visibility on the rig can be significantly improved. Many light fixtures, which had been sources of blinding glare due to of lack of shielding, poor placement, or poor aiming, were made better and safer, using optional glare shields that are offered by manufacturers for a variety of fixture models. Proper shielding and aiming of existing fixtures improves visibility and reduces wasted uplight. New lighting systems that take advantage of light-emitting-diode technology also promise better directionality, reduced fuel consumption, and darker skies overhead.

The oil-and-gas industry has been lighting its exploration and production activities in much same way for more than 100 years, with little to no consideration of environmental impacts. The opportunity exists to adopt new lighting practices and technologies that improve safety, reduce costs, and help preserve our vanishing night skies so that important ongoing scientific exploration can continue.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Society of Petroleum Engineers Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes SPE E&P Health, Safety, Security and Environmental Conference-Americas held in Denver, Colorado, USA, 16–18 March 2015 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1993
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Author Teare, S. W.
Title The night sky brightness at Mount Wilson Observatory Type (up) Journal Article
Year 2000 Publication The Observatory Abbreviated Journal
Volume 120 Issue Pages 313-317
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2001
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Author Mammola, S.; Isaia, M.; Demonte, D.; Triolo, P.; Nervo, M.
Title Artificial lighting triggers the presence of urban spiders and their webs on historical buildings Type (up) Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Landscape and Urban Planning Abbreviated Journal Landscape and Urban Planning
Volume 180 Issue Pages 187-194
Keywords Animals; Lighting
Abstract Different spider species living in the urban environment spin their webs on building facades. Due to air pollution, web aggregations entrap dirt particles over time, assuming a brownish-greyish colouration and thus determining an aesthetic impact on buildings and street furniture. In Europe, the most common species causing such an aesthetic nuisance is Brigittea civica (Lucas) (Dictynidae). In spite of the socio-economical relevance of the problem, the ecological factors driving the proliferation of this species in the urban environment are poorly described and the effectiveness of potential cleaning activities has never been discussed in scientific literature. Over one year, we studied the environmental drivers of B. civica webs in the arcades of the historical down-town district of Turin (NW-Italy). We selected a number of sampling plots on arcade ceilings and we estimated the density of B. civica webs by means of digital image analysis. In parallel, we collected information on a number of potential explanatory variables driving the arcade colonization, namely artificial lighting at night, substrate temperature, distance from the main artificial light sources and distance from the river. Regression analysis showed that the coverage of spider webs increased significantly at plots with higher light intensity, with a major effect related to the presence of historical lampposts with incandescent lamps rather than halogen lamps. We also detected a seasonal variation in the web coverage, with significant higher values in summer. Stemming from our results, we are able to suggest good practices for the containment of this phenomenon.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0169-2046 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2002
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Author Bará, S.
Title Variations on a classical theme: On the formal relationship between magnitudes per square arcsecond and luminance Type (up) Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Sustainable Lighting Abbreviated Journal Intl J of Sustainable Lighting
Volume 19 Issue 2 Pages 77
Keywords Instrumentation; skyglow; luminance; magnitude; sky brigthness; photometry
Abstract The formal link between magnitudes per square arcsecond and luminance is discussed in this paper. Directly related to the human visual system, luminance is defined in terms of the spectral radiance of the source, weighted by the CIE V(l) luminous efficiency function, and scaled by the 683 lm/W luminous efficacy constant. In consequence, any exact and spectrum-independent relationship between luminance and magnitudes per square arcsecond requires that the last ones be measured precisely in the CIE V(l) band. The luminance value corresponding to mVC=0 (zero-point of the CIE V(l) magnitude scale) depends on the reference source chosen for the definition of the magnitude system. Using absolute AB magnitudes, the zero point luminance of the CIE V(l) photometric band is 10.96 x 104 cd·m-2.
Address Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain; salva.bara(at)usc.es
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2586-1247 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2162
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