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Author Windle, A. E., Hooley, D. S., & Johnston, D. W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Robotic Vehicles Enable High-Resolution Light Pollution Sampling of Sea Turtle Nesting Beaches Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Frontiers in Marine Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 5 Issue 493 Pages  
  Keywords Instrumentation; Animals; Skyglow  
  Abstract Nesting sea turtles appear to avoid brightly lit beaches and often turn back to sea prematurely when exposed to artificial light. Observations and experiments have noted that nesting turtles prefer darker areas where buildings and high dunes act as light barriers. As a result, sea turtles often nest on darker beaches, creating spatial concentrations of nests. Artificial nighttime light, or light pollution, has been quantified using a variety of methods. However, it has proven challenging to make accurate measurements of ambient light at fine scales and on smaller nesting beaches. Additionally, light has traditionally been measured from stationary tripods perpendicular to beach vegetation, disregarding the point of view of a nesting sea turtle. In the present study, nighttime ambient light conditions were assessed on three beaches in central North Carolina: a developed coastline of a barrier island, a nearby State Park on the same barrier island comprised of protected and undeveloped land, and a completely uninhabited wilderness on an adjacent barrier island in the Cape Lookout National Seashore. Using an autonomous terrestrial rover, high resolution light measurements (mag/arcsec2) were collected every minute with two ambient light sensors along transects on each beach. Spatial comparisons between ambient light and nesting density at and between these locations reveal that highest densities of nests occur in regions with lowest light levels, supporting the hypothesis that light pollution from coastal development may influence turtle nesting distribution. These results can be used to support ongoing management strategies to mitigate this pressing conservation issue.  
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  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2315  
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Author Opperhuizen, A.-L.; Foppen, E.; Jonker, M.; Wackers, P.; van Faassen, M.; van Weeghel, M.; van Kerkhof, L.; Fliers, E.; Kalsbeek, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of Light-at-Night on the Rat Liver – A Role for the Autonomic Nervous System Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Frontiers in Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Front. Neurosci.  
  Volume 13 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Exposure to light at night (LAN) has been associated with serious pathologies, including obesity, diabetes and cancer. Recently we showed that 2 h of LAN impaired glucose tolerance in rats. Several studies have suggested that the autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays an important role in communicating these acute effects of LAN to the periphery. Here, we investigated the acute effects of LAN on the liver transcriptome of male Wistar rats. Expression levels of individual genes were not markedly affected by LAN, nevertheless pathway analysis revealed clustered changes in a number of endocrine pathways. Subsequently, we used selective hepatic denervations [sympathetic (Sx), parasympathetic (Px), total (Tx, i.e., Sx plus Px), sham] to investigate the involvement of the ANS in the effects observed. Surgical removal of the sympathetic or parasympathetic hepatic branches of the ANS resulted in many, but small changes in the liver transcriptome, including a pathway involved with circadian clock regulation, but it clearly separated the four denervation groups. On the other hand, analysis of the liver metabolome was not able to separate the denervation groups, and only 6 out of 78 metabolites were significantly up- or downregulated after denervations. Finally, removal of the sympathetic and parasympathetic hepatic nerves combined with LAN exposure clearly modulated the effects of LAN on the liver transcriptome, but left most endocrine pathways unaffected.  
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  ISSN 1662-453X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2539  
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Author McGlashan, E.M.; Poudel, G.R.; Vidafar, P.; Drummond, S.P.A.; Cain, S.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Imaging Individual Differences in the Response of the Human Suprachiasmatic Area to Light Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Frontiers in Neurology Abbreviated Journal Front. Neurol.  
  Volume 9 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Circadian disruption is associated with poor health outcomes, including sleep and mood disorders. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus acts as the master biological clock in mammals, regulating circadian rhythms throughout the body. The clock is synchronized to the day/night cycle via retinal light exposure. The BOLD-fMRI response of the human suprachiasmatic area to light has been shown to be greater in the night than in the day, consistent with the known sensitivity of the clock to light at night. Whether the BOLD-fMRI response of the human suprachiasmatic area to light is related to a functional outcome has not been demonstrated. In a pilot study (n = 10), we investigated suprachiasmatic area activation in response to light in a 30 s block-paradigm of lights on (100 lux) and lights off (< 1 lux) using the BOLD-fMRI response, compared to each participant's melatonin suppression response to moderate indoor light (100 lux). We found a significant correlation between activation in the suprachiasmatic area in response to light in the scanner and melatonin suppression, with increased melatonin suppression being associated with increased suprachiasmatic area activation in response to the same light level. These preliminary findings are a first step toward using imaging techniques to measure individual differences in circadian light sensitivity, a measure that may have clinical relevance in understanding vulnerability in disorders that are influenced by circadian disruption.  
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  ISSN 1664-2295 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2114  
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Author Benedetto, M.M.; Contin, M.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Oxidative Stress in Retinal Degeneration Promoted by Constant LED Light Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Front. Cell. Neurosci.  
  Volume 13 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Vision; Human Health  
  Abstract Light pollution by artificial light, might accelerate retinal diseases and circadian asynchrony. The excess of light exposure is a growing problem in societies, so studies on the consequences of long-term exposure to low levels of light are needed to determine the effects on vision. The possibility to understand the molecular mechanisms of light damage will contribute to the knowledge about visual disorders related to defects in the phototransduction. Several animal models have been used to study retinal degeneration (RD) by light; however, some important aspects remain to be established. Previously, we demonstrated that cool white treatment of 200 lux light-emitting diode (LED) induces retinal transformation with rods and cones cell death and significant changes in opsin expression in the inner nuclear layer (INL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL). Therefore, to further develop describing the molecular pathways of RD, we have examined here the oxidative stress and the fatty acid composition in rat retinas maintained at constant light. We demonstrated the existence of oxidative reactions after 5 days in outer nuclear layer (ONL), corresponding to classical photoreceptors; catalase (CAT) enzyme activity did not show significant differences in all times studied and the fatty acid study showed that docosahexaenoic acid decreased after 4 days. Remarkably, the docosahexaenoic acid diminution showed a correlation with the rise in stearic acid indicating a possible association between them. We assumed that the reduction in docosahexaenoic acid may be affected by the oxidative stress in photoreceptors outer segment which in turn affects the stearic acid composition with consequences in the membrane properties. All these miss-regulation affects the photoreceptor survival through unknown mechanisms involved. We consider that oxidative stress might be one of the pathways implicated in RD promoted by light.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1662-5102 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2333  
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Author Rodríguez, A.; Arcos, J.M.; Bretagnolle, V.; Dias, M.P.; Holmes, N.D.; Louzao, M.; Provencher, J.; Raine, A.F.; Ramírez, F.; Rodríguez, B.; Ronconi, R.A.; Taylor, R.S.; Bonnaud, E.; Borrelle, S.B.; Cortés, V.; Descamps, S.; Friesen, V.L.; Genovart, M.; Hedd, A.; Hodum, P.; Humphries, G.R.W.; Le Corre, M.; Lebarbenchon, C.; Martin, R.; Melvin, E.F.; Montevecchi, W.A.; Pinet, P.; Pollet, I.L.; Ramos, R.; Russell, J.C.; Ryan, P.G.; Sanz-Aguilar, A.; Spatz, D.R.; Travers, M.; Votier, S.C.; Wanless, R.M.; Woehler, E.; Chiaradia, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Future Directions in Conservation Research on Petrels and Shearwaters Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Frontiers in Marine Science Abbreviated Journal Front. Mar. Sci.  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages 94  
  Keywords Animals; Birds; Seabirds; Petrels; Shearwaters; Review  
  Abstract Shearwaters and petrels (hereafter petrels) are highly adapted seabirds that occur across all the world’s oceans. Petrels are a threatened seabird group comprising 124 species. They have bet-hedging life histories typified by extended chick rearing periods, low fecundity, high adult survival, strong philopatry, monogamy and long-term mate fidelity and are thus vulnerable to change. Anthropogenic alterations on land and at sea have led to a poor conservation status of many petrels with 52 (42%) threatened species based on IUCN criteria and 65 (52%) suffering population declines. Some species are well-studied, even being used as bioindicators of ocean health, yet for others there are major knowledge gaps regarding their breeding grounds, migratory areas or other key aspects of their biology and ecology. We assembled 38 petrel conservation researchers to summarize information regarding the most important threats according to the IUCN Red List of threatened species to identify knowledge gaps that must be filled to improve conservation and management of petrels. We highlight research advances on the main threats for petrels (invasive species at breeding grounds, bycatch, overfishing, light pollution, climate change, and pollution). We propose an ambitious goal to reverse at least some of these six main threats, through active efforts such as restoring island habitats (e.g., invasive species removal, control and prevention), improving policies and regulations at global and regional levels, and engaging local communities in conservation efforts.  
  Address Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD) Seville, Spain  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2296-7745 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2283  
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