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Author Willmott, N. J., Henneken, J., Elgar, M. A., & Jones, T. M. doi  openurl
  Title Guiding lights: Foraging responses of juvenile nocturnal orb‐web spiders to the presence of artificial light at night Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Ethology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 125 Issue 5 Pages 289-287  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract The reach of artificial light at night (ALAN) is growing rapidly around the globe, including the increasing use of energy‐efficient LED lights. Many studies document the physiological costs of light at night, but far fewer have focused on the potential benefits for nocturnal insectivores and the likely ecological consequences of shifts in predator–prey relationships. We investigated the effects of ALAN on the foraging behaviour and prey capture success in juvenile Australian garden orb‐web spiders (Eriophora biapicata). Laboratory experiments demonstrated that juvenile spiders were attracted to LED lights when choosing foraging sites, but prey availability was a stronger cue for remaining in a foraging site. Field experiments revealed a significant increase in prey capture rates for webs placed near LED lights. This suggests that any physiological costs of light at night may be offset by the foraging benefits, perhaps partially explaining recently observed increases in the size, fecundity and abundance of some orb‐web spider species in urban environments. Our results highlight the potential long‐term consequences of night lighting in urban ecosystems, through the impact of orb‐web spiders on insect populations.  
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  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2304  
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Author Young, L. C., VanderWerf, E. A., McKown M., Roberts, P., Schlueter, J., Vorsino, A., & Sischo, D. doi  openurl
  Title Evidence of Newell’s Shearwaters and Hawaiian Petrels on Oahu, Hawaii Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication The Condor: Ornithological Applications Abbreviated Journal Condor  
  Volume 121 Issue 1 Pages 1-7  
  Keywords Animals; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Hawaii’s only 2 endemic seabirds, Newell’s Shearwater (Puffinus auricularis newelli) and Hawaiian Petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis), are listed under the United States Endangered Species Act. Threats to both species include light attraction and fallout, collisions with power lines and other structures, predation by invasive animals, and habitat degradation. Both species were assumed to be extirpated from the island of Oahu despite limited survey effort. We used survey data from Kauai (both species) and Maui (Hawaiian Petrel only) to model suitable habitat and light conditions. We then projected this model onto Oahu to identify potential survey sites. From April to September of 2016–2017, we deployed automated acoustic recording units at 13 potentially suitable sites across Oahu. We detected Newell’s Shearwaters at 2 sites; one on the leeward slopes of Mount Kaala in the Waianae Mountains and another at Poamoho in the Koolau Mountains. We detected Hawaiian Petrels at one location on the windward slope of Mount Kaala. All 3 sites were in nearly intact native forest with steep slopes. The frequency of detections at these sites suggests that both species are regularly prospecting on Oahu and potentially could be breeding there. If they are breeding, these individuals could represent missing links in the population connectivity of both species among islands. Protecting any remnant breeding populations would be of high conservation value given their recent population declines.  
  Address Pacific Rim Conservation, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA  
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  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2308  
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Author Point, S. doi  openurl
  Title Blue Light Hazard: are exposure limit values protective enough for newborn infants? Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Radioprotection Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 53 Issue 3 Pages 219-224  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Blue Light Hazard is an emerging concern for health of population. Nevertheless, acute exposure to blue rays from artificial light is well taken into account by normative requirements applicable to lamps engineering and risk for general population is low. There is also no evidence for a chronic effect of artificial lighting on retina for general population at radiance below exposure limit values. That said, children in the very first years of life constitute a specific population to consider. On one side, eye anatomy of very young infants is different from elder young people or adults. On the other side, infants can be in close contact with some luminous toys or night lights. This paper presents a first approach for taking into account the specific anatomy of newborn infants’ eyes in blue light hazard evaluation. Results show that differences of crystalline lens transparency, focal length and pupil diameter could induce a significantly higher retinal exposure than for adult.  
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  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1982  
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Author Fan, J., He, H., Hu, T., Zhang, P., Yu, X., & Zhou, Y. doi  openurl
  Title Estimation of Landscape Pattern Changes in BRICS from 1992 to 2013 Using DMSP-OLS NTL Images Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal J Ind Soc Rem Sens  
  Volume 47 Issue 5 Pages 725–735  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; BRICS; Brazil; India; China; South Africa; nighttime light; night lights; DMSP-OLS  
  Abstract Nighttime light data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System are widely used for monitoring urbanization development. Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) countries have global economic and cultural influence in the new era. It was the first time for the researches about BRICS countries adopting nighttime light data to analyze the urbanization process. In this paper, we calibrated and extracted annual urbanized area patches from cities in BRICS based on a quadratic polynomial model. Nine landscape indexes were calculated to analyze urbanization process characteristics in BRICS. The results suggested that China and India both expanded more rapidly than other countries, with urban areas that increased by more than 100%. The expansion of large core cities was dominant in the urbanization of China, while emerging and expanding small urban patches were major forces in the urbanization of India. Since 1992, urbanization declined and urban areas shrunk in Russia, but core cities still maintained strength of urbanization. Due to economic recovery, urban areas near large cities in Russia began to expand. From 1992 to 2013, the urbanization process in South Africa developed slowly, as evidenced by time series fluctuations, but overall the development remained stable. The degree of urbanization in Brazil was greater than that in South Africa but less than that in Russia. Large-sized cities expanded slowly and small-sized cities clearly expanded in BRICS from 1992 to 2013.  
  Address School of Civil and Architectural Engineering,Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, China; anjf(at)sdut.edu.cn  
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  Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2307  
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Author Ciach, M., & Fröhlich, A. doi  openurl
  Title Ungulates in the city: light pollution and open habitats predict the probability of roe deer occurring in an urban environment Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Urban Ecosystems Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 22 Issue 3 Pages 513–523  
  Keywords Animals; ungulates; Poland; Europe; roe deer; Capreolus capreolus  
  Abstract Although large and medium-sized herbivorous mammals avoid urbanized areas, they have recently begun to colonize towns and cities. In general, ungulates continue to avoid the centres of urban areas, and utilize mainly their thinly built-up outskirts. While extension of urban development is preventing ungulates from penetrating the urban landscape, the influence of noise and light pollution on the occurrence of mammalian herbivores is still poorly understood. Hence, we investigated the hypothesis that habitat availability shapes the distribution of roe deer Capreolus capreolus and artificial lightening discourages them from penetrating the urban landscape. Roe deer was recorded on 37% of randomly selected sample plots (N = 60) located within the city of Kraków (S Poland). The occupied plots contained significantly more open habitats, woodland patches were larger in them, but proximity to rivers, and noise and light pollution were significantly lower. The logistic regression model revealed that an increasing area of open habitats was positively correlated with the probability of roe deer occurring. However, the artificial lighting at night was negatively correlated with the probability of the species occurring: the negative effect of light pollution was mitigated by the greater area of open habitats. Our study highlights the very considerable potential of light pollution as a predictor of the occurrence of large mammals in the urban landscape. We argue that urbanization and the related artificial lighting at night may be a factor preventing ungulates from penetrating potentially suitable habitats in urban areas.  
  Address Department of Forest Biodiversity, Institute of Forest Ecology and Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, University of Agriculture, Kraków, Poland; michal.ciach(at)ur.krakow.pl  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2305  
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