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Author Syposz, M.; Gonçalves, F.; Carty, M.; Hoppitt, W.; Manco, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Factors influencing Manx Shearwater grounding on the west coast of Scotland Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Ibis Abbreviated Journal Ibis  
  Volume 160 Issue 4 Pages 846-854  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Grounding of thousands of newly fledged petrels and shearwaters (family Procellariidae) in built‐up areas due to artificial light is a global problem. Due to their anatomy these grounded birds find it difficult to take off from built‐up areas and many fall victim to predation, cars, dehydration or starvation. This research investigated a combination of several factors that may influence the number of Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus groundings in a coastal village of Scotland located close to a nesting site for this species. A model was developed that used meteorological variables and moon cycle to predict the daily quantity of birds that were recovered on the ground. The model, explaining 46.32% of the variance of the data, revealed how new moon and strong onshore winds influence grounding. To a lesser extent, visibility conditions can also have an effect on grounding probabilities. The analysis presented in this study can improve rescue campaigns of not only Manx Shearwaters but also other species attracted to the light pollution by predicting conditions leading to an increase in the number of groundings. It could also inform local authorities when artificial light intensity needs to be reduced.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0019-1019 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2778  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Eccard, J.A.; Scheffler, I.; Franke, S.; Hoffmann, J.; Leather, S.; Stewart, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Off-grid: solar powered LED illumination impacts epigeal arthropods Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Insect Conservation and Diversity Abbreviated Journal Insect Conserv Divers  
  Volume 11 Issue 6 Pages 600-607  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology  
  Abstract Advances in LED technology combined with solar, storable energy bring light to places remote from electricity grids. Worldwide more than 1.3 billion of people are living off‐grid, often in developing regions of high insect biodiversity. In developed countries, dark refuges for wildlife are threatened by ornamental garden lights. Solar powered LEDs (SPLEDs) are cheaply available, dim, and often used to illuminate foot paths, but little is known on their effects on ground living (epigeal) arthropods.

We used off‐the‐shelf garden lamps with a single ‘white’ LED (colour temperature 7250 K) to experimentally investigate effects on attraction and nocturnal activity of ground beetles (Carabidae).

We found two disparate and species‐specific effects of SPLEDs. (i) Some nocturnal, phototactic species were not reducing activity under illumination and were strongly attracted to lamps (>20‐fold increase in captures compared to dark controls). Such species aggregate in lit areas and SPLEDs may become ecological traps, while the species is drawn from nearby, unlit assemblages. (ii) Other nocturnal species were reducing mobility and activity under illumination without being attracted to light, which may cause fitness reduction in lit areas.

Both reactions offer mechanistic explanations on how outdoor illumination can change population densities of specific predatory arthropods, which may have cascading effects on epigeal arthropod assemblages. The technology may thus increase the area of artificial light at night (ALAN) impacting insect biodiversity.

Measures are needed to mitigate effects, such as adjustment of light colour temperature and automated switch‐offs.
 
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 1752458X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2085  
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Author Rowan, W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light And Seasonal Reproduction In Animals Type Journal Article
  Year 1938 Publication Biological Reviews Abbreviated Journal Biological Reviews  
  Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 374-401  
  Keywords Animals  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1464-7931 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2395  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Elliott, J.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The daily activity patterns of mayfly nymphs (Ephemeroptera) Type Journal Article
  Year 1968 Publication Journal of Zoology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 155 Issue 2 Pages 201-221  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Nymphs of Baëtis rhodani (Pictet), Ephemerella ignita (Poda), Ecdyonurus venosus (Fabricius), Rhithrogena semicolorata (Curtis), and Heptagenia lateralis (Curtis) showed a similar endogenous rhythm of activity under conditions of natural illumination, continuous light and continuous darkness; and were most active at night when they moved from the lower to the upper surface of the stone. The nymphs were positively thigmotactic and negatively phototactic in flowing water, but these taxes and the endogenous activity rhythm of all species except Heptagenia lateralis changed markedly when the flow of water ceased.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0952-8369 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2467  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Taylor, G.; Davies, W.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Control Of Leaf Growth Of Betula And Acer By Photoenvironment Type Journal Article
  Year 1985 Publication New Phytologist Abbreviated Journal New Phytol  
  Volume 101 Issue 2 Pages 259-268  
  Keywords Plants  
  Abstract Leaf extension of one‐year‐old seedlings of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.), was measured using linear variable transducers (LVDTs) interfaced to a microcomputer. Birch and sycamore seedlings exhibited contrasting patterns of leaf extension during a diurnal cycle with a 16 h photoperiod. Birch leaves grew more rapidly when illuminated; growth during the photoperiod was approximately doubled when compared with growth in the dark. Mean relative growth rates ±SE at ‘lights‐on + 3 h’ and ‘lights‐off + 5 h’ were 0.0136 ± 0.0016 and 0.0066 ± 0.0005 h−1 respectively. In direct contrast, growth of sycamore leaves was increased when leaves were darkened; mean relative growth rates + SE at ‘lights‐on+3 h’ and ‘lights‐off + 5 h’ were 0.0056 ± 0.0005 and 0.0094 ± 0.0008 h‐1 respectively.

When leaves of birch and sycamore were darkened, increased leaf turgor was measured in both species, but only in sycamore was this higher night‐time turgor associated with a higher rate of leaf growth.

Cell wall extensibility (WEX), an indication of the ability of cell walls to loosen and extend irreversibly, and cell surface pH were assessed in darkened and illuminated leaves of both species. An increase in WEX was measured when birch leaves were illuminated (P≤ 0.001) and this was accompanied by a decline in cell surface pH (P≤ 0.001). However, when leaves of sycamore were illuminated, WEX declined (P≤ 005) and cell surface pH increased (P≤ 0.001).

The ability of these species to survive beneath a woodland canopy is discussed in relation to the cellular factors controlling their leaf growth.
 
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0028-646X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1992  
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