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Author Langbehn, T.; Aksnes, D.; Kaartvedt, S.; Fiksen, Ø.; Jørgensen, C.
Title Light comfort zone in a mesopelagic fish emerges from adaptive behaviour along a latitudinal gradient Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Marine Ecology Progress Series Abbreviated Journal Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.
Volume (down) 623 Issue Pages 161-174
Keywords Animals; Moonlight
Abstract Throughout the oceans, small fish and other micronekton migrate between daytimedepths of several hundred meters and near-surface waters at night. These diel vertical migrationsof mesopelagic organisms structure pelagic ecosystems through trophic interactions, and are akey element in the biological carbon pump. However, depth distributions and migration ampli-tude vary greatly. Suggested proximate causes of the migration such as oxygen, temperature, andlight often correlate and therefore the causal underpinnings have remained unclear. Using meso-pelagic fishes and the Norwegian Sea as a study system, we developed a dynamic state variablemodel that finds optimal migration patterns that we validate with acoustic observations along alatitudinal gradient. The model describes predation risk and bioenergetics, and maximizes ex -pected energy surplus, a proxy for Darwinian fitness. The model allows us to disentangle the driv-ers of migration and make predictions about depth distribution and related fitness consequencesalong a latitudinal trajectory with strong gradients in environmental drivers and vertical distribu-tion of scattering layers. We show that the model-predicted vertical migration of mesopelagicfishes matches that observed along this transect. For most situations, modelled mesopelagic fishbehaviour can be well described by a light comfort zone near identical to that derived from obser-vations. By selectively keeping light or temperature constant, the model reveals that temperature,in comparison with light, has little effect on depth distribution. We find that water clarity, whichlimits how deeply light can penetrate into the ocean, structures daytime depths, while surfacelight at night controlled the depth of nocturnal ascents.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0171-8630 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2598
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Author Maggi, E.; Benedetti-Cecchi, L.
Title Trophic compensation stabilizes marine primary producers exposed to artificial light at night Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Marine Ecology Progress Series Abbreviated Journal Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.
Volume (down) 606 Issue Pages 1-5
Keywords Plants; Animals; Ecology
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is a widespread phenomenon along coastal areas. Despite increasing evidence of pervasive effects of ALAN on patterns of species distribution and abundance, the potential of this emerging threat to alter ecological processes in marine ecosystems has remained largely unexplored. Here, we show how exposure to white LED lighting, comparable to that experienced along local urbanized coasts, significantly enhanced the impact of grazing gastropods on epilithic microphytobenthos (MPB). ALAN increased both the photosynthetic biomass of MPB and the grazing pressure of gastropods, such that consumers compensated for the positive effect of night lighting on primary producers. Our results indicate that trophic interactions can provide a stabilizing compensatory mechanism against ALAN effects in natural food webs.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0171-8630 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2063
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Author Wilson, P.; Thums, M.; Pattiaratchi, C.; Meekan, M.; Pendoley, K.; Fisher, R.; Whiting, S.
Title Artificial light disrupts the nearshore dispersal of neonate flatback turtles Natator depressus Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Marine Ecology Progress Series Abbreviated Journal Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.
Volume (down) 600 Issue Pages 179-192
Keywords Animals
Abstract After emerging from nests, neonate sea turtles entering the water are thought to orientate away from shore using wave cues to guide them out to sea. Artificial light may interfere with this process, but the relative importance of natural and anthropogenic cues to the dispersal of hatchlings is unknown. Here, we used acoustic telemetry to track the movement of flatback turtle (Natator depressus) hatchlings dispersing through nearshore waters. Turtles dispersed in the presence and absence of artificial light through a receiver array where a range of oceanographic variables were measured. Turtle tracks were analysed using a full subsets Generalised Additive Mixed Model approach to identify the most important cues influencing the bearing, variance in bearing (a measure of the ability to orientate directly), rate of travel and time spent in the array. Artificial light reduced their swim speed by up to 30%, increased the amount of time spent in nearshore waters (by 50–150%) and increased the variance in bearing (100–180% more variable), regardless of oceanographic conditions. Under ambient conditions, ocean currents affected the bearing of hatchlings as they left the shore, but when light was present, this effect was diminished, showing turtles actively swam against currents in their attempts to move towards light. After accounting for the effects of currents on hatchlings dispersing under ambient conditions, turtles swam offshore by moving perpendicular to the coastline and did not appear to orient into incident wave direction. Overall, light disrupted the dispersal of hatchlings causing them to linger, become disoriented in the near shore and expend energy swimming against ocean currents.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0171-8630 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1967
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Author Strobl, E.
Title The Impact of Typhoons on Economic Activity in the Philippines: Evidence from Nightlight Intensity Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication ADB Economics Working Paper Series Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 589 Issue Pages
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract We quantify the economic impact of typhoons in the Philippines. To this end we construct a panel data set of local economic activity derived from nightlight intensity satellite images and a cell level measure of typhoon damage constructed from storm track data, a wind field model, and a stylized damage function. Our econometric results reveal that there is a statistically and potentially economically significant, albeit short- lived, impact of typhoon destruction on local economic activity. Constructing risk profiles from a 60-year historical set of storms suggests that (near) future losses in economic activity for frequent (5-year return period) and rare (50-year return period) events are likely

to range from between 1.0% and 2.5%.
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ISSN ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2641
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Author Manoli, G.; Fatichi, S.; Schlapfer, M.; Yu, K.; Crowther, T.W.; Meili, N.; Burlando, P.; Katul, G.G.; Bou-Zeid, E.
Title Magnitude of urban heat islands largely explained by climate and population Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature
Volume (down) 573 Issue 7772 Pages 55-60
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Urban heat islands (UHIs) exacerbate the risk of heat-related mortality associated with global climate change. The intensity of UHIs varies with population size and mean annual precipitation, but a unifying explanation for this variation is lacking, and there are no geographically targeted guidelines for heat mitigation. Here we analyse summertime differences between urban and rural surface temperatures (DeltaTs) worldwide and find a nonlinear increase in DeltaTs with precipitation that is controlled by water or energy limitations on evapotranspiration and that modulates the scaling of DeltaTs with city size. We introduce a coarse-grained model that links population, background climate, and UHI intensity, and show that urban-rural differences in evapotranspiration and convection efficiency are the main determinants of warming. The direct implication of these nonlinearities is that mitigation strategies aimed at increasing green cover and albedo are more efficient in dry regions, whereas the challenge of cooling tropical cities will require innovative solutions.
Address Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31485056 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2669
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