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Author Stafstrom, J.A.; Hebets, E.A.
Title Male attraction to female airborne cues by the net-casting spider, Deinopis spinosa Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal Behav Processes
Volume (down) 159 Issue Pages 23-30
Keywords Animals
Abstract For many animals, finding a mate can be a difficult task. For males, it often involves actively searching for conspecific females, sometimes over great distances. This mate-searching can be aided through chemical or visual signals or cues produced by sexually receptive females. Here, we investigate the roles of olfaction and vision in mate-searching in a strictly nocturnal net-casting spider, Deinopis spinosa. First, we used an olfactometer assay to determine if mature male D. spinosa respond to conspecific airborne cues. We found that mature males, but not mature females, were attracted to airborne cues of mature female conspecifics. We next investigated the relative importance of olfaction and vision in male mate-searching. While manipulating airflow and light levels in screened enclosures in the laboratory, we tested freely moving mature males for mate-searching success. We found no effect of our airflow treatment on mate-searching success. Light levels, however, affected mate-searching in an unexpected way – males were more likely to locate females in complete darkness when compared to dim-light conditions. Our results suggest that visual cues are not necessary for successful male mate-searching in D. spinosa, but that the visual environment can nonetheless influence male behavior. In summary, we provide evidence suggesting that airborne cues, but not visual cues, are important in D. spinosa male mate-searching efforts, though the source of these chemical airborne cues remains unknown.
Address University of Nebraska – Lincoln, School of Biological Sciences, NE, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30562562 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2152
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Author Thompson, E.K.; Cullinan, N.L.; Jones, T.M.; Hopkins, G.R.
Title Effects of artificial light at night and male calling on movement patterns and mate location in field crickets Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Animal Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Animal Behaviour
Volume (down) 158 Issue Pages 183-191
Keywords Animals
Abstract Anthropogenic factors, such as artificial light at night (ALAN), are increasingly linked to significant modifications in animal behaviours, such as foraging or migration. However, few studies have investigated directly whether the presence of ALAN affects the ability to find a mate (mate location). One direct effect of the presence of ALAN is that it can create a light barrier in an otherwise dark environment. This may have significant behavioural implications for nocturnally active species if it affects their ability to respond to potential mates. Our study, using the acoustically orienting Australian black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus, determined experimentally whether the presence of a fragmented light environment influenced movement patterns of virgin females and males. Moreover, given the importance of male song for reproductive outcomes in this species, we assessed simultaneously whether such behaviours were modified by the presence of a male attraction call. We found that while initiation of movement was slower in the presence of ALAN, the behavioural shifts associated with its presence were relatively small compared to the influence of a broadcast male attraction call. The response to the male attraction call was typically stronger for females than for males, but both males and females modified aspects of behaviour when it was present regardless of whether their immediate environment was fragmented by artificial light at night or not. Artificial light at night may alter subtle aspects of movement and mating behaviour in this species, but ultimately does not provide a barrier to movement or mate location.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2752
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Author Hoglund, J.; Mitkus, M.; Olsson, P.; Lind, O.; Drews, A.; Bloch, N.I.; Kelber, A.; Strandh, M.
Title Owls lack UV-sensitive cone opsin and red oil droplets, but see UV light at night: retinal transcriptomes and ocular media transmittance Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Vision Research Abbreviated Journal Vision Res
Volume (down) 158 Issue Pages 109-119
Keywords Animals; Vision; Birds; owls; Short-eared Owl; tawny owl; boreal owl; Long-eared Owl; Asio otus; Asio flammeus; Strix aluco; Aegolius funereus; cones; Photoreceptors
Abstract Most diurnal birds have cone-dominated retinae and tetrachromatic colour vision based on ultra-violet/violet-sensitive UV/V cones expressing short wavelength-sensitive opsin 1 (SWS1), S cones expressing short wavelength-sensitive opsin 2 (SWS2), M cones expressing medium wavelength-sensitive opsin (RH2) and L cones expressing long wavelength-sensitive opsin (LWS). Double cones (D) express LWS but do not contribute to colour vision. Each cone is equipped with an oil droplet, transparent in UV/V cones, but pigmented by carotenoids: galloxanthin in S, zeaxanthin in M, astaxanthin in L and a mixture in D cones. Owls (Strigiformes) are crepuscular or nocturnal birds with rod-dominated retinae and optical adaptations for high sensitivity. For eight species, the absence of functional SWS1 opsin has recently been documented, functional RH2 opsin was absent in three of these. Here we confirm the absence of SWS1 transcripts for the Long-eared owl (Asio otus) and demonstrate its absence for the Short-eared owl (Asio flammeus), Tawny owl (Strix aluco) and Boreal owl (Aegolius funereus). All four species had transcripts of RH2, albeit with low expression. All four species express all enzymes needed to produce galloxanthin, but lack CYP2J19 expression required to produce astaxanthin from dietary precursors. We also present ocular media transmittance of the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) and Short-eared owl and predict spectral sensitivities of all photoreceptors of the Tawny owl. We conclude that owls, despite lacking UV/V cones, can detect UV light. This increases the sensitivity of their rod vision allowing them, for instance, to see UV-reflecting feathers as brighter signals at night.
Address Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0042-6989 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30825468 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2245
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Author Gineste, B.; Souquet, M.; Couzi, F.-X.; Giloux, Y.; Philippe, J.-S.; Hoarau, C.; Tourmetz, J.; Potin, G.; Le Corre, M.
Title Tropical Shearwater population stability at Reunion Island, despite light pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Journal of Ornithology Abbreviated Journal J Ornithol
Volume (down) 158 Issue 2 Pages 385-394
Keywords Animals
Abstract Seabirds are exposed to numerous threats at sea and on land, and they are among the most endangered birds worldwide. Procellariids are attracted by artificial light, and this causes massive fallout at various places of the world. In Reunion Island, Tropical Shearwaters Puffinus bailloni are heavily impacted by light pollution. To assess the population trends of this species, we conducted two large-scale acoustic surveys across the island (in 1996/1997 and in 2013/2015) and analysed the numbers of birds attracted by lights and rescued by the local wildlife rescue center between 1996 and 2015. We detected 220 colonies in 2013/2015, including 124 colonies previously surveyed in 1996/97 and 96 newly discovered colonies. The average vocal activity recorded at colonies was similar during the two surveys suggesting no marked change in population size. Some 13,200 Tropical Shearwaters were found grounded since 1996 due to light attraction, of which 88 % were successfully released. The number of reported grounded birds increased 19-fold between 1996 and 2015. This increase was due to a combination of factors that are difficult to disentangle: (1) increasing public awareness; (2) increasing light pollution; and (3) the absence of population collapse. Indeed, both acoustic surveys and the number of rescued birds indicate that the Tropical Shearwater population of Reunion Island did not decline between 1996/1997 and 2013/2015. We suggest that the rescue campaigns conducted annually strongly contributed to this stability. Thus, we recommend maintaining the rescue operations, but also to reduce light pollution.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2193-7192 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2447
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Author Can Duman, A.; Güler, Ö.
Title Techno-economic analysis of off-grid photovoltaic LED road lighting systems: A case study for northern, central and southern regions of Turkey Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Building and Environment Abbreviated Journal Building and Environment
Volume (down) 156 Issue Pages 89-98
Keywords Economics; Lighting; off-grid photovoltaic; LED; Turkey
Abstract Street lighting is one of the sectors where off-grid energy systems are used, and in the past decade interest in these systems has increased due to recent developments occurred both in LED and PV technology. This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of off-grid PV LED road lighting systems for northern, central and southern regions of Turkey. Road lighting calculations are conducted using DIALux software for M4 and M5 road lighting classes to obtain optimal LED luminaires, pole sizes, and spacings. Among the obtained LED powers, load profiles are created using real lighting hours of operation of the selected regions. And then, the required PV-battery systems are optimized using HOMER software. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed for future projections considering possible increases in electricity prices and decreases in component cost of the PV systems. The results showed that the levelized COE of the off-grid PV LED road lighting systems vary between 0.229 and 0.362 $/kWh. for M4, and 0.254–0.359 $/kWh for M5 road lighting class, depending on the solar potential of the region. And, the total NPC of the entire lighting installation per km vary between 24296 and 29123 $ for M5, and 33225–44318 $ for M4 road lighting class. According to the results, the systems are infeasible under current conditions in Turkey. Nonetheless, they have the added benefits of contributing to the reduction of CO2 emissions. Moreover, future projections show that the systems can be feasible if the declining trend in PV system costs continues and electricity prices increase.
Address Istanbul Technical University, Energy Institute, Ayazaga Campus, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey; dumanan(at)itu.edu.tr
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elseiver Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0360-1323 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2292
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