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Author Dominoni, D.; Smit, J.A.H.; Visser, M.E.; Halfwerk, W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Multisensory pollution: Artificial light at night and anthropogenic noise have interactive effects on activity patterns of great tits (Parus major) Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) Abbreviated Journal Environ Pollut  
  Volume (down) 256 Issue Pages 113314  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, physiology; Circadian Rhythm; Cities; Ecosystem; Male; Netherlands; Photoperiod; Seasons; Songbirds; Urbanization; Alan; Circadian rhythms; Great tits; Light pollution; Noise; Urbanization  
  Abstract Urbanisation is increasing globally at a rapid pace. Consequently, wild species face novel environmental stressors associated with urban sprawl, such as artificial light at night and noise. These stressors have pervasive effects on the behaviour and physiology of many species. Most studies have singled out the impact of just one of these stressors, while in the real world they are likely to co-occur both temporally and spatially, and we thus lack a clear understanding of the combined effect of anthropogenic stressors on wild species. Here, we experimentally exposed captive male great tits (Parus major) to artificial light at night and 24h noise in a fully factorial experiment. We then measured the effect of both these stressors on their own and their combination on the amount and timing of activity patterns. We found that both light and noise affected activity patterns when presented alone, but in opposite ways: light increased activity, particularly at night, while noise reduced it, particularly during the day. When the two stressors were combined, we found a synergistic effect on the total activity and the nighttime activity, but an antagonistic effect on daytime activity. The significant interaction between noise and light treatment also differed among forest and city birds. Indeed, we detected a significant interactive effect on light and noise on daytime, nighttime, dusktime and offset of activity of urban birds, but not of forest birds. These results suggest that both artificial light at night and anthropogenic noise can drive changes in activity patterns, but that the specific impacts depend on the habitat of origin. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that co-occurring exposure to noise and light can lead to a stronger impact at night than predicted from the additive effects and thus that multisensory pollution may be a considerable threat for wildlife.  
  Address Department of Ecological Science, VU University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; davide.dominoni ( at ) glasgow.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31761596 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 3312  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Renthlei, Z.; Trivedi, A.K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effect of urban environment on pineal machinery and clock genes expression of tree sparrow (Passer montanus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Environmental Pollution Abbreviated Journal Environmental Pollution  
  Volume (down) 255 Issue Pages 113278  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Increasing urbanisation is altering the physiology of wild animals and the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. We hypothesised that altering the physiology of urban organisms is due to the effect of extra light at night on the circadian clock by modulating the expression of pineal machinery and clock genes. Two experiments were performed. In Experiment 1, immediately after being procured from their respective sites (urban and rural sites), birds were released individually in LLdim light conditions. Circadian rhythm period, activity duration, and total activity count were calculated and did not differ between urban and rural birds. In Experiment 2, birds (from urban and rural habitats) were sampled at six time points at regular 4-h intervals, beginning 1 h after sunrise. We measured daily variations in plasma melatonin levels. We also analysed the expression levels of Aanat, Mel1A and Mel1B as an indicator of melatonin biosynthesis and action machinery. Clock and clock-controlled genes (Bmal1, Clock, Per2, Per3, Cry1 and Npas2) were studied in the hypothalamus, the pineal gland, and retina to investigate the effects of urban habitats on the circadian clock. Our results show that there is a lower expression of Aanat in the pineal gland and relatively low plasma melatonin levels in urban birds. Further, clock genes are also differentially expressed in all three central tissues of urban birds. We propose that alterations in the melatonin biosynthesis machinery and the expression of clock genes could result in miscalculations in the internal timing of the organism, with environmental timings leading to altered physiology in urban wild animals.  
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  ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2682  
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Author McNaughton, E.J.; Beggs, J.R.; Gaston, K.J.; Jones, D.N.; Stanley, M.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Retrofitting streetlights with LEDs has limited impacts on urban wildlife Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation  
  Volume (down) 254 Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology  
  Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) causes a wide range of ecological impacts across diverse ecosystems. Most concentrated in urban areas, ALAN poses a particular risk to associated wildlife by disrupting physiology, behaviour and ultimately survival. This risk is predicted to shift as nighttime lightscapes in many cities undergo change. Globally, streetlights are currently being retrofitted with newer technologies that differ in the spectrum and intensity of their emissions, but there is a dearth of in situ urban experiments on the ecological impacts of this change. We monitored timing of dawn and dusk bird song; frequency of owl vocalisations; avian diversity, relative abundance and community composition; small invasive mammal and ground insect activity; and invertebrate relative abundance at 26 residential properties over an 18-month period that coincided with a retrofit from high-pressure sodium (HPS) to white light-emitting diode (LED) streetlights. Initiation time of dawn song was advanced or delayed for two bird species following the retrofit and backyard avian community composition was altered. Avian species richness, relative abundances of three bird species and ground insect activity increased in the presence of LED streetlights. No other retrofit effects were found. Our study suggests that retrofitting streetlights with white LEDs may lead to both positive and negative conservation outcomes for urban wildlife, but direct impacts are relatively small and may be mitigated by changes in lighting characteristics, such as dimming. Streetlight retrofits could provide an opportunity to reduce the impacts of ALAN on urban wildlife if intentionally designed with conservation benefits in mind.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3291  
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Author Barentine, J.C.; Kundracik, F.; Kocifaj, M.; Sanders, J.C.; Esquerdo, G.A.; Dalton, A.M.; Foott, B.; Grauer, A.; Tucker, S.; Kyba, C.C.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Recovering the city street lighting fraction from skyglow measurements in a large-scale municipal dimming experiment Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume (down) 253 Issue Pages 107120  
  Keywords Skyglow; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Anthropogenic skyglow dominates views of the natural night sky in most urban settings, and the associated emission of artificial light at night (ALAN) into the environment of cities involves a number of known and suspected negative externalities. One approach to lowering consumption of ALAN in cities is dimming or extinguishing publicly owned outdoor lighting during overnight hours; however, there are few reports in the literature about the efficacy of these programs. Here we report the results of one of the largest municipal lighting dimming experiments to date, involving ~ 20,000 roadway luminaires owned and operated by the City of Tucson, Arizona, U.S. We analyzed both single-channel and spatially resolved ground-based measurements of broadband night sky radiance obtained during the tests, determining that the zenith sky brightness during the tests decreased by ()% near the city center and ()% at an adjacent suburban location on nights when the output of the street lighting system was dimmed from 90% of its full power draw to 30% after local midnight. Modeling these changes with a radiative transfer code yields results suggesting that street lights account for about (14 ± 1)% of light emissions resulting in skyglow seen over the city. A separate derivation from first principles implies that street lighting contributes only % of light seen at the zenith over Tucson. We discuss this inconsistency and suggest routes for future work.  
  Address 3223 N 1st Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719; john(at)darksky.org  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Enlish Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2989  
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Author Bouroussis, C.A.; Topalis, F.V. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Assessment of outdoor lighting installations and their impact on light pollution using unmanned aircraft systems – The concept of the drone-gonio-photometer Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume (down) 253 Issue Pages 107155  
  Keywords Instrumentation; Lighting  
  Abstract This paper presents the ongoing work of the lighting laboratory to develop a standardized method for the measurement of several types of lighting installations using unmanned aircraft systems. The technology of unmanned aircraft systems can incorporate multiple types of sensors and can be programmed to fly in predefined areas and routes in order to perform complex measurements with limited human intervention. This technology provides the freedom of measurements from several angular positions and altitudes in a fast, easy, accurate and repeatable way. The overall aim of this work is to assess the lighting installations, not only against the applicable lighting standards but also to investigate and reveal issues related to light pollution and obtrusive lighting. The latter are issues that in most cases are neglected due to the lack of standardized methods of calculation and measurement. Current assessment methods require illuminance or luminance measurements of horizontal and vertical surfaces generally from the ground. The proposed approach provides a holistic three-dimensional evaluation of the lighting installations beyond the common methods and geometries and opens the discussion for future update of the relevant standards on outdoor lighting. In the scope of this paper, several proof-of-concept cases are presented.  
  Address Lighting Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str, 15780, Zografou, Athens, Greece; bouroussis(at)gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2996  
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