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Author Sierro, A., & Erhardt, A.
Title Light pollution hampers recolonization of revitalised European Nightjar habitats in the Valais (Swiss Alps) Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Journal of Ornithology Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 160 Issue 3 Pages 749–761
Keywords Animals; Conservation; Birds; Caprimulgus europaeus; Conservation measures; Moth availability; Nocturnal adaptation
Abstract Increasing light emissions caused by human activities have been recognized as a major threat for nocturnal animals. In Switzerland, the European Nightjar is a rare bird, decreasing in numbers since the 1970s, and is therefore highly threatened. The last breeding population occurs in the canton Valais. Initial expert-based conservation measures on formerly inhabited breeding sites were successful until 2000, however recent additional measures have failed. Nightjars are highly sensitive to light due to their special retina adapted to living in semi-darkness. We hypothesized that food availability, mainly moths, is not a critical limiting factor, but that artificial light emissions prevent successful foraging as well as recolonizing revitalised breeding habitats of the nightjar. To test this hypothesis, we used light trapping data of moths from the last 30 years to evaluate food availability and compared light emission on abandoned versus still-occupied breeding sites. Abundance of larger moths did not change significantly over the last 30 years, and smaller moths even increased in abandoned as well as in still-occupied nightjar habitats. However, light emission was two to five times higher in abandoned compared to still-occupied sites. These results suggest that increasing light emission during recent decades has exceeded tolerable levels for this highly specialized night bird. Authorities of the canton Valais should therefore order a reduction in light emission near nightjar habitats by replacing bulbs currently in use with customized LED or broad-spectrum lamps low in white and blue light, and assign remaining nightjar habitats as areas of complete nocturnal darkness, thereby also protecting other threatened nocturnal animals, including moths.
Address Conservation Nature and Paysage, Sierre, Switzerland; antoine(at)naturarks.ch
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2300
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Author Bhukya, K. A., Ramasubbareddy, S., Govinda, K., & Srinivas, T. A. S.
Title Adaptive Mechanism for Smart Street Lighting System Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Smart Intelligent Computing and Applications Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 160 Issue Pages 69-76
Keywords Lighting
Abstract The adaptive street light has the ability to adapt to the motion of cycles, cars and pedestrians. It uses motion as well as light sensors to detect the traffic and light around. It dims when there is no movement on the road, and is brightened when there is any activity. Smart street lights are very dissimilar from the old methods of lighting. It is an automated system that will be able to automate the streets. The main objective of these lights is to decrease the utilization of power, while no activity is detected on the street. It will be switched ON while there are pedestrians and cars on the street or else they will get dimmed to 20% of the brightness. The proposed approach gives a method to conserve power by using the PIR sensors to sense the incoming traffic and hence turning ON a cluster of lights surrounding the traffic. As the traffic is passing by, the street lights left behind will dim on its own. Hence, a lot of power can be conserved. Also, during the day time when there is no need of light the LDR sensor will sense the light and the light will remain switched OFF. This smart street light system comes under the domain of smart city.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2723
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Author Syposz, M.; Gonçalves, F.; Carty, M.; Hoppitt, W.; Manco, F.
Title Factors influencing Manx Shearwater grounding on the west coast of Scotland Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Ibis Abbreviated Journal Ibis
Volume (down) 160 Issue 4 Pages 846-854
Keywords Animals
Abstract Grounding of thousands of newly fledged petrels and shearwaters (family Procellariidae) in built‐up areas due to artificial light is a global problem. Due to their anatomy these grounded birds find it difficult to take off from built‐up areas and many fall victim to predation, cars, dehydration or starvation. This research investigated a combination of several factors that may influence the number of Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus groundings in a coastal village of Scotland located close to a nesting site for this species. A model was developed that used meteorological variables and moon cycle to predict the daily quantity of birds that were recovered on the ground. The model, explaining 46.32% of the variance of the data, revealed how new moon and strong onshore winds influence grounding. To a lesser extent, visibility conditions can also have an effect on grounding probabilities. The analysis presented in this study can improve rescue campaigns of not only Manx Shearwaters but also other species attracted to the light pollution by predicting conditions leading to an increase in the number of groundings. It could also inform local authorities when artificial light intensity needs to be reduced.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0019-1019 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2778
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Author Stafstrom, J.A.; Hebets, E.A.
Title Male attraction to female airborne cues by the net-casting spider, Deinopis spinosa Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal Behav Processes
Volume (down) 159 Issue Pages 23-30
Keywords Animals
Abstract For many animals, finding a mate can be a difficult task. For males, it often involves actively searching for conspecific females, sometimes over great distances. This mate-searching can be aided through chemical or visual signals or cues produced by sexually receptive females. Here, we investigate the roles of olfaction and vision in mate-searching in a strictly nocturnal net-casting spider, Deinopis spinosa. First, we used an olfactometer assay to determine if mature male D. spinosa respond to conspecific airborne cues. We found that mature males, but not mature females, were attracted to airborne cues of mature female conspecifics. We next investigated the relative importance of olfaction and vision in male mate-searching. While manipulating airflow and light levels in screened enclosures in the laboratory, we tested freely moving mature males for mate-searching success. We found no effect of our airflow treatment on mate-searching success. Light levels, however, affected mate-searching in an unexpected way – males were more likely to locate females in complete darkness when compared to dim-light conditions. Our results suggest that visual cues are not necessary for successful male mate-searching in D. spinosa, but that the visual environment can nonetheless influence male behavior. In summary, we provide evidence suggesting that airborne cues, but not visual cues, are important in D. spinosa male mate-searching efforts, though the source of these chemical airborne cues remains unknown.
Address University of Nebraska – Lincoln, School of Biological Sciences, NE, USA
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30562562 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2152
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Author Thompson, E.K.; Cullinan, N.L.; Jones, T.M.; Hopkins, G.R.
Title Effects of artificial light at night and male calling on movement patterns and mate location in field crickets Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Animal Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Animal Behaviour
Volume (down) 158 Issue Pages 183-191
Keywords Animals
Abstract Anthropogenic factors, such as artificial light at night (ALAN), are increasingly linked to significant modifications in animal behaviours, such as foraging or migration. However, few studies have investigated directly whether the presence of ALAN affects the ability to find a mate (mate location). One direct effect of the presence of ALAN is that it can create a light barrier in an otherwise dark environment. This may have significant behavioural implications for nocturnally active species if it affects their ability to respond to potential mates. Our study, using the acoustically orienting Australian black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus, determined experimentally whether the presence of a fragmented light environment influenced movement patterns of virgin females and males. Moreover, given the importance of male song for reproductive outcomes in this species, we assessed simultaneously whether such behaviours were modified by the presence of a male attraction call. We found that while initiation of movement was slower in the presence of ALAN, the behavioural shifts associated with its presence were relatively small compared to the influence of a broadcast male attraction call. The response to the male attraction call was typically stronger for females than for males, but both males and females modified aspects of behaviour when it was present regardless of whether their immediate environment was fragmented by artificial light at night or not. Artificial light at night may alter subtle aspects of movement and mating behaviour in this species, but ultimately does not provide a barrier to movement or mate location.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2752
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