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Author Morelli, F.; Benedetti, Y.; Moravec, D.; Jerzak, L.; Tryjanowski, P.; Liang, W.; Møller, A.P.
Title Global congruence between cuckoo species richness and biodiversity hotspots Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation
Volume (down) 232 Issue Pages 28-34
Keywords Animals
Abstract Considering loss of biodiversity a global threat, cost-effective tools for monitoring spatial distribution of species are relevant for conservation planning. The aims of this study were (a) to compare the global pattern of species richness in Cuculidae with species richness of birds, amphibians and mammals; (b) whether it is spatially congruent with hotspot areas of biodiversity at a global scale; and (c) whether the distribution of night light intensity reflecting human population density is associated with cuckoo species richness. We mapped the global distribution of all cuckoo species, classified as parasitic or non-parasitic species. Species richness was calculated at a fixed spatial scale for: Cuculidae, amphibians, birds and mammals. We applied Generalized Linear Mixed Models in order to explore the associations between species richness of each group of animals, night light intensity and hotspots of biodiversity areas at a global scale.

Worldwide patterns of species richness of parasitic and non-parasitic cuckoos reflected species richness of birds, amphibians and mammals. In addition, and importantly, species richness of cuckoos was spatially congruent with hotspot areas of biodiversity across the world. Finally, night light intensity was slightly positively associated with species richness of parasitic cuckoos. Our findings confirmed that cuckoos constitute an important surrogate of high species richness of different animal taxa at a global scale: It is easy to learn how to identify cuckoos, whereas other species of birds, mammals or amphibians can only be identified by specialists. Our findings also suggest that other parasitic cuckoo species can be used as a biodiversity surrogate in a similar way as the common cuckoo in Eurasia.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2207
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Author Molcan, L.; Sutovska, H.; Okuliarova, M.; Senko, T.; Krskova, L.; Zeman, M.
Title Dim light at night attenuates circadian rhythms in the cardiovascular system and suppresses melatonin in rats Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Life Sciences Abbreviated Journal Life Sci
Volume (down) 231 Issue Pages 116568
Keywords Animals
Abstract AIMS: Cardiovascular parameters exhibit significant 24-h variability, which is coordinated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and light/dark cycles control SCN activity. We aimed to study the effects of light at night (ALAN; 1-2lx) on cardiovascular system control in normotensive rats. MAIN METHODS: Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured by telemetry during five weeks of ALAN exposure. From beat-to-beat telemetry data, we evaluated spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (sBRS). After 2 (A2) and 5 (A5) weeks of ALAN, plasma melatonin concentrations and the response of BP and HR to norepinephrine administration were measured. The expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and endothelin-1 was determined in the aorta. Spontaneous exploratory behaviour was evaluated in an open-field test. KEY FINDINGS: ALAN significantly suppressed the 24-h variability in the HR, BP, and sBRS after A2, although the parameters were partially restored after A5. The daily variability in the BP response to norepinephrine was reduced after A2 and restored after A5. ALAN increased the BP response to norepinephrine compared to the control after A5. Increased eNOS expression was found in arteries after A2 but not A5. Endothelin-1 expression was not affected by ALAN. Plasma melatonin levels were suppressed after A2 and A5. Spontaneous exploratory behaviour was reduced. SIGNIFICANCE: ALAN decreased plasma melatonin and the 24-h variability in the haemodynamic parameters and increased the BP response to norepinephrine. A low intensity ALAN can suppress circadian control of the cardiovascular system with negative consequences on the anticipation of a load.
Address Department of Animal Physiology and Ethology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0024-3205 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31202842 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2548
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Author Hines, C.W.; Fang, Y.; Chan, V.K.S.; Stiller, K.T.; Brauner, C.J.; Richards, J.G.
Title The effect of salinity and photoperiod on thermal tolerance of Atlantic and coho salmon reared from smolt to adult in recirculating aquaculture systems Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol
Volume (down) 230 Issue Pages 1-6
Keywords Animals
Abstract Land-based, closed containment salmon aquaculture involves rearing salmon from smolt to adult in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Unlike in open-net pen aquaculture, rearing conditions can be specified in RAS in order to optimize growth and physiological stress tolerance. The environmental conditions that yield optimal stress tolerance in salmon are, however, unknown. To address this knowledge gap, we reared Atlantic (Salmo salar) and coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) salmon in 7 separate RASs for 400days post-smoltification under 2 photoperiods (24:0 or 12:12, light:dark) and 4 salinities (2.5, 5, 10 or 30ppt.) and assessed the effects of these conditions on thermal tolerance. We found that over the first 120days post-smoltification, rearing coho under a 24:0 photoperiod resulted in a ~2 degrees C lower critical thermal maxima (CTmax) than in coho reared under a 12:12 photoperiod. This photoperiod effect did not persist at 200 and 400days, which was coincident with an overall decrease in CTmax in coho. Finally, Atlantic salmon had a higher CTmax (~28 degrees C) compared to coho (~26 degrees C) at 400days post-smoltification. Overall, these findings are important for the future implications of RAS and for the aquaculture industry to help identify physiologically sensitive time stages.
Address Department of Zoology, The University of British Columbia, 6270 University Blvd., Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1095-6433 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30590111 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2149
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Author Kelsey, E.C.; Felis, J.J.; Czapanskiy, M.; Pereksta, D.M.; Adams, J.
Title Collision and displacement vulnerability to offshore wind energy infrastructure among marine birds of the Pacific Outer Continental Shelf Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal J Environ Manage
Volume (down) 227 Issue Pages 229-247
Keywords Animals
Abstract Marine birds are vulnerable to collision with and displacement by offshore wind energy infrastructure (OWEI). Here we present the first assessment of marine bird vulnerability to potential OWEI in the California Current System portion of the U.S. Pacific Outer Continental Shelf (POCS). Using population size, demography, life history, flight heights, and avoidance behavior for 62 seabird and 19 marine water bird species that occur in the POCS, we present and apply equations to calculate Population Vulnerability, Collision Vulnerability, and Displacement Vulnerability to OWEI for each species. Species with greatest Population vulnerability included those listed as species of concern (e.g., Least Tern [Sternula antillarum], Marbled Murrelet [Brachyramphus marmoratus], Pink-footed Shearwater [Puffinus creatopus]) and resident year-round species with small population sizes (e.g., Ashy Storm-Petrel [Oceanodroma homochroa], Brandt's Cormorant [Phalacrocorax penicillatus], and Brown Pelican [Pelecanus occidentalis]). Species groups with the greatest Collision Vulnerability included jaegers/skuas, pelicans, terns and gulls that spend significant amounts of time flying at rotor sweep zone height and don't show macro-avoidance behavior (avoidance of entire OWEI area). Species groups with the greatest Displacement Vulnerability show high macro-avoidance behavior and low habitat flexibility and included loons, grebes, sea ducks, and alcids. Using at-sea survey data from the southern POCS, we combined species-specific vulnerabilities described above with at-sea species densities to assess vulnerabilities spatially. Spatial vulnerability densities were greatest in areas with high species densities (e.g., near-shore areas) and locations where species with high vulnerability were found in abundance. Our vulnerability assessment helps understand and minimize potential impacts of OWEI infrastructure on marine birds in the POCS and could inform management decisions.
Address U.S. Geological Survey Western Ecological Research Center, Santa Cruz, CA 95062, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0301-4797 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30195148 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2122
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Author Ou, J.; Liu, X.; Wang, S.; Xie, R.; Li, X.
Title Investigating the differentiated impacts of socioeconomic factors and urban forms on CO2 emissions: Empirical evidence from Chinese cities of different developmental levels Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Journal of Cleaner Production Abbreviated Journal Journal of Cleaner Production
Volume (down) 226 Issue Pages 601-614
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract To reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions attributed widely to human activities, previous studies have paid great attention to the relationships between socioeconomic development, urban forms and CO2 emissions in cities, and provided relevant emission mitigation policies through the effective urban spatial planning. However, whether and how different features of urban forms (such as compactness) affecting the levels of CO2 emissions is still debatable, specifically considering the different development levels of the cities. Therefore, this study is to synthetically explore how socioeconomic factors and urban forms work together to affect CO2 emissions with the consideration of differences in development levels of five city tiers in China. First, CO2 emissions in each city were derived from provincial energy statistics, radiance-calibrated nighttime light imageries, and population distribution data based on a disaggregating model. Then, a set of variables representing socioeconomic factors and urban forms were acquired from the city statistics and land use data, respectively. After obtaining the balanced dataset of these five city tiers from 1995 to 2015, the panel data analysis was finally applied to evaluate the consequences of socioeconomic factors and urban forms on CO2 emissions under different development stages. The estimation results show that the economic development, population growth, and urban land expansion are important factors that accelerating CO2 emissions in all the city tiers. Besides, irregular or fragmented structures of urban land use could result in more CO2 emissions due to the increase in potential transportation requirements in all the city tiers. Notably, an increasing concentrated pattern in the urban core is found to increase CO2 emissions in the tier-one cities, but to promote the reduction of CO2 emissions in other four city tiers. The urban spatial development with a compact and multiple-nuclei pattern is suggested to be closely linked with a lower level of CO2 emissions. Such results highlight the importance of a city's development level for decision-making involving the mitigation of CO2 emissions, and provide scientific support for building a low-carbon city from the perspective of both socioeconomic development and urban spatial planning.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0959-6526 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2325
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