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Author Hicks, D.; Attia, D.; Behar-Cohen, F.; Carre, S.; Enouf, O.; Falcon, J.; Gronfier, C.; Martinsons, C.; Metlaine, A.; Tahkamo, L.; Torriglia, A.; FrancoiseVienot
Title How good is the evidence that light at night can affect human health? Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur Klinische und Experimentelle Ophthalmologie Abbreviated Journal Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol
Volume (up) Issue Pages in press
Keywords Commentary
Abstract Light pollution and exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) have become almost universal in the modern world. Although there is an ongoing debate about how such environmental changes can affect human well-being and health, there is no doubt that ALAN perturbs the circadian clock – an ancestral system which synchronizes bodily physiology with the day-night cycle. The eye, especially the retina, has a dual role in this story – on the one hand, it is the unique source of light entry to the central clock in the brain, and on the other, eyes themselves are strongly regulated by endogenous circadian clocks. This editorial gives a very brief overview of the situation and poses certain unanswered questions.
Address Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0721-832X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31900646 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2791
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Author Grunst, M.L.; Raap, T.; Grunst, A.S.; Pinxten, R.; Parenteau, C.; Angelier, F.; Eens, M.
Title Early-life exposure to artificial light at night elevates physiological stress in free-living songbirds Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Environmental Pollution Abbreviated Journal Environmental Pollution
Volume (up) Issue Pages in press
Keywords Animals
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) can disrupt adaptive patterns of physiology and behavior that promote high fitness, resulting in physiological stress and elevation of steroid glucocorticoids (corticosterone, CORT in birds). Elevated CORT may have particularly profound effects early in life, with the potential for enduring effects that persist into adulthood. Research on the consequences of early-life exposure to ALAN remains limited, especially outside of the laboratory, and the effects of early-life light exposure on CORT concentrations in wild nestling birds remain to be elucidated. We used an experimental setup to test the hypothesis that ALAN elevates CORT concentrations in developing free-living birds, by exposing nestling great tits (Parus major) to ALAN inside nest boxes. We measured CORT in feathers grown over the timeframe of the experiment (7 nights), such that CORT concentrations represent an integrative metric of hormone release over the period of nocturnal light exposure, and of development. We also assessed the relationships between feather CORT concentrations, body condition, nestling size rank and fledging success. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between feather CORT concentrations and telomere length. Nestlings exposed to ALAN had higher feather CORT concentrations than control nestlings, and nestlings in poorer body condition and smaller brood members also had higher CORT. On the other hand, telomere length, fledging success, and recruitment rate were not significantly associated with light exposure or feather CORT concentrations. Results indicate that exposure to ALAN elevates CORT concentrations in nestlings, which may reflect physiological stress. In addition, the organizational effects of CORT are known to be substantial. Thus, despite the lack of effect on telomere length and survivorship, elevated CORT concentrations in nestlings exposed to ALAN may have subsequent impacts on later-life fitness and stress sensitivity.
Address
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2796
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Author Adrian, J.; Hue, D.; Porte, S.; Le Brun, J.
Title Validation of the driver ecological glare test Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Safety Research Abbreviated Journal Journal of Safety Research
Volume (up) Issue Pages in press
Keywords Night vision
Abstract The present study proposes to validate the Driver Ecological Glare Test (DEGT), a test developed to measure the benefit of a headlight glare Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS), by comparing it to a laboratory glare test. Method: Twenty-four participants, aged from 55 to 70 years, were recruited to complete a visual examination, including monocular halo size measurement for both eyes using Vision Monitor device (MonCv3; Metrovision). An on-field evaluation took place at night at the UTAC CERAM test track to obtain disability glare measures using the DEGT. Results: A significant correlation was found between the two glare tests and Bland-Altman analysis reveals a good agreement with a bias of 73.7 arcmin between the halo size measurements obtained from the DEGT and Vision Monitor. The results of the present study demonstrate that the DEGT is a valid method to test halo size and is adapted to evaluate the benefits of an antiglare device for drivers in an ecological situation.
Address
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4375 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2797
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Author Wood, J.M.
Title Nighttime driving: visual, lighting and visibility challenges Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics : the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists) Abbreviated Journal Ophthalmic Physiol Opt
Volume (up) Issue Pages in press
Keywords Review; Public Safety; headlights; nighttime driving; older drivers; pedestrians and cyclists; streetlights; visual performance
Abstract PURPOSE: Nighttime driving is dangerous and is one of the most challenging driving situations for most drivers. Fatality rates are higher at night than in the day when adjusted for distances travelled, particularly for crashes involving pedestrians and cyclists. Although there are multiple contributory factors, the low light levels at night are believed to be the major cause of collisions with pedestrians and cyclists at night, most likely due to their reduced visibility. Understanding the visibility problems involved in nighttime driving is thus critical, given the increased risk to road safety. RECENT FINDINGS: This review discusses research that highlights key differences in the nighttime road environment compared to the day and how this affects visual function and driving performance, together with an overview of studies investigating how driver age and visual status affect nighttime driving performance. Research that has focused on the visibility of vulnerable road users at nighttime (pedestrians and cyclists) is also included. SUMMARY: Collectively, the research evidence suggests that visual function is reduced under the mesopic lighting conditions of night driving and that these effects are exacerbated by increasing age and visual impairment. Light and glare from road lighting and headlights have significant impacts on vision and night driving and these effects are likely to change with evolving technologies, such as LED streetlighting and headlights. Research also highlights the importance of the visibility of vulnerable road users at night and the role of retroreflective clothing in the 'biomotion' configuration for improving their conspicuity and hence safety.
Address School of Optometry and Vision Science and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0275-5408 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31875993 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2803
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Author Dominoni, D.M.; Kjellberg Jensen, J.; de Jong, M.; Visser, M.E.; Spoelstra, K.
Title Artificial light at night, in interaction with spring temperature, modulates timing of reproduction in a passerine bird Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Ecological Applications : a Publication of the Ecological Society of America Abbreviated Journal Ecol Appl
Volume (up) Issue Pages in press
Keywords Animals; Parus major; Alan; light pollution; phenology; timing of reproduction; urbanization
Abstract The ecological impact of artificial light at night (ALAN) on phenological events such as reproductive timing is increasingly recognized. In birds, previous experiments under controlled conditions showed that ALAN strongly advances gonadal growth, but effects on egg-laying date are less clear. In particular, effects of ALAN on timing of egg-laying are found to be year-dependent, suggesting an interaction with climatic conditions such as spring temperature, which is known have strong effects on the phenology of avian breeding. Thus, we hypothesized that ALAN and temperature interact to regulate timing of reproduction in wild birds. Field studies have suggested that sources of ALAN rich in short wavelengths can lead to stronger advances in egg-laying date. We therefore tested this hypothesis in the great tit (Parus major), using a replicated experimental setup where eight previously unlit forest transects were illuminated with either white, green, or red LED light, or left dark as controls. We measured timing of egg-laying for 619 breeding events spread over six consecutive years and obtained temperature data for all sites and years. We detected overall significantly earlier egg-laying dates in the white and green light versus the dark treatment, and similar trends for red light. However, there was a strong inter-annual variability in mean egg-laying dates in all treatments, which was explained by spring temperature. We did not detect any fitness consequence of the changed timing of egg-laying due to ALAN, which suggests that advancing reproduction in response to ALAN might be adaptive.
Address Plant Ecology and Nature Conservation Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1051-0761 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31863538 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2805
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