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Author Min, B.; O'Keeffe, Z.; Zhang, F.
Title Whose Power Gets Cut? Using High-Frequency Satellite Images to Measure Power Supply Irregularity Type Book Whole
Year 2017 Publication Policy Research Working Papers Abbreviated Journal
Volume (up) Issue Pages
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract In many parts of the developing world, access to electricity is uneven and inconsistent, characterized by frequent and long hours of power outages. Many countries now engage in systematic load shedding because of persistent power shortages. When and where electricity is provided can have important impacts on welfare and growth. But quantifying those impacts is difficult because utility-level data on power outages are rarely available and not always reliable. This paper introduces a new method of tracking power outages from outer space. This measure identifies outage-prone areas by detecting excess fluctuations in light outputs. To develop these measures, the study processed the complete historical archive of sub-orbital Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) nighttime imagery captured over South Asia on every night since 1993. The analysis computes annual estimates of the Power Supply Irregularity index for all 600,000 villages in India from 1993 to 2013. The Power Supply Irregularity index measures are consistent with ground-based measures of power supply reliability from the Indian Human Development Survey, and with feeder-level outage data from one of the largest utilities in India. The study's methods open new opportunities to study the determinants of power outages as well as their impacts on welfare.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The World Bank Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2109
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Author Liu, Q.; Manning, A.J.; Duston, J.
Title Light intensity and suppression of nocturnal plasma melatonin in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol
Volume (up) in press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract The problem of early sexual maturation among farmed Arctic charr and other salmonids can be effectively reduced by 24h light overwinter, provided it is bright enough to over-ride interference from the natural daylength cycle. To determine the threshold light intensity to suppress the nocturnal elevation of plasma melatonin, three groups of individually tagged fish (n=26-28/group ca. 1040g) were reared on 12h light: 12h dark (LD 12:12) and subjected to nighttime light intensities of either 50-65, 0.1-0.3 or 0 (control) lux for five months (November to April). Daytime light intensity was 720-750lx. Diel plasma melatonin profiles in both November and April were similar; mean daytime levels ranged from 20 to 100pg/ml, and nighttime levels were inversely proportional to light intensity. In the control group at 0lx, plasma melatonin increased about four-fold after lights-off, ranging between 320 and 430pg/ml. Nighttime light intensity of 0.1-0.3lx halved plasma melatonin levels to 140-220pg/ml, and 50-65lx further reduced the levels to one quarter of the control group, 68-108pg/ml. Among the lit groups, daytime plasma melatonin levels were about 20-30pg/ml, significantly lower than the nocturnal levels suggesting the diel hormonal rhythm was not completely abolished. Fish grew steadily from about 1100g to 1600g between November and April, independent of light intensity (P=.67). Overall, the study demonstrated the sensitivity of pineal melatonin hormone to different light intensities in Arctic charr.
Address Department of Animal Science and Aquaculture, Dalhousie University, Agricultural Campus, Truro, NS B2N 5E3, Canada
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1095-6433 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30471350 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2111
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Author Zapata, M.J.; Sullivan, S.M.P.; Gray, S.M.
Title Artificial Lighting at Night in Estuaries—Implications from Individuals to Ecosystems Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Estuaries and Coasts Abbreviated Journal
Volume (up) In press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals; Ecology
Abstract Artificial lighting at night (ALAN) produced by urban, industrial, and roadway lighting, as well as other sources, has dramatically increased in recent decades, especially in coastal environments that support dense human populations. Artificial “lightscapes” are characterized by distinct spatial, temporal, and spectral patterns that can alter natural patterns of light and dark with consequences across levels of biological organization. At the individual level, ALAN can elicit a suite of physiological and behavioral responses associated with light-mediated processes such as diel activity patterns and predator-prey interactions. ALAN has also been shown to modify community composition and trophic structure, with implications for ecosystem-level processes including primary productivity, nutrient cycling, and the energetic linkages between aquatic and terrestrial systems. Here, we review the state of the science relative to the impacts of ALAN on estuaries, which is an important step in assessing the long-term sustainability of coastal regions. We first consider how multiple properties of ALAN (e.g., intensity and spectral content) influence the interaction between physiology and behavior of individual estuarine biota (drawing from studies on invertebrates, fishes, and birds). Second, we link individual- to community- and ecosystem-level responses, with a focus on the impacts of ALAN on food webs and implications for estuarine ecosystem functions. Coastal aquatic communities and ecosystems have been identified as a key priority for ALAN research, and a cohesive research framework will be critical for understanding and mitigating ecological consequences.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2116
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Author Rea, M.; Skinner, N.; Bullough, J.
Title A Novel Barricade Warning Light System Using Wireless Communications Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-5036 Abbreviated Journal
Volume (up) In press Issue Pages
Keywords Lighting; Safety
Abstract Workers in construction and transportation sectors are at increased risk for work-related injuries and fatalities by nearby traffic. Barricade-mounted warning lights meeting current specifications do not always provide consistent and adequate visual guidance to drivers and can contribute to glare and reduced safety. Through an implementation of sensors and wireless communications, a novel, intelligent set of warning lights and a tablet-based interface were developed. The lights modulate between 100% and 10% of maximum intensity rather than between 100% and off in order to improve visual guidance and adjust their overall intensity based on ambient conditions. The lights can be synchronized or operated in sequential flash patterns at any frequency between 1 and 4 Hz, and sequential patterns automatically update based on global positioning satellite (GPS) locations displayed in the control interface. A successful field demonstration of the system verified that its functions were viewed favorably by transportation safety personnel.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2117
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Author Tarquini, R.; Carbone, A.; Martinez, M.; Mazzoccoli, G.
Title Daylight saving time and circadian rhythms in the neuro-endocrine-immune system: impact on cardiovascular health Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Internal and Emergency Medicine Abbreviated Journal Intern Emerg Med
Volume (up) in press Issue Pages
Keywords Human Health
Abstract
Address Division of Internal Medicine and Laboratory of Chronobiology, Department of Medical Sciences, Fondazione IRCCS “Casa Sollievo Della Sofferenza”, Cappuccini Avenue, San Giovanni Rotondo, Foggia, 71013, Italy. g.mazzoccoli@operapadrepio.it
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1828-0447 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30488154 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2121
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