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Author Okuliarova, M.; Mazgutova, N.; Majzunova, M.; Rumanova, V.S.; Zeman, M.
Title Dim Light at Night Impairs Daily Variation of Circulating Immune Cells and Renal Immune Homeostasis Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2021 Publication Frontiers in Immunology Abbreviated Journal Front. Immunol.
Volume 11 Issue Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Dim light at night (dLAN) has become a pervasive part of the modern world, and growing evidence shows its association with increased health risks. Though this link is attributed to a disturbed circadian clock, the underlying mechanisms that can explain how circadian disruption from dLAN causes negative health effects remain unclear. Here, we exposed rats to a light–dark cycle (12:12 h) with low-intensity light at night (~2 lx) for 2 and 5 weeks and explored the steady-state pattern of circulating immune cells and renal immune-related markers, which are well controlled by the circadian clock. After 5 weeks, dLAN impaired the daily variation in several types of white blood cells, especially monocytes and T cells. Two-week dLAN caused a reduction in blood monocytes and altered gene expression of macrophage marker Cd68 and monocyte-attracting chemokine Ccl2 in the kidney. Interestingly, dLAN decreased renal 3-nitrotyrosine levels and resulted in up-regulation of the main endogenous antioxidant pathways, indicating a disturbance in the renal redox balance and an activation of compensatory mechanisms. These effects paralleled the altered renal expression of the molecular clock components and increased plasma corticosterone levels. Together, our results show that chronic exposure to dLAN weakened the circadian control of daily variation of circulating immune cells and disturbed renal immune and redox homeostasis. Consequences of this dLAN-disturbed immune balance on the ability of the immune system to cope with other challenges should by clarified in further studies.
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ISSN 1664-3224 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3340
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Author Singhal, R. K.; Chauhan, J.; Jatav, H. S.; Rajput, V. D.; Singh, G. S.; Bose, B.
Title Artificial night light alters ecosystem services provided by biotic components Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2021 Publication BIOLOGIA FUTURA Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages in press
Keywords Review; Ecology
Abstract The global catastrophe of natural biodiversity and ecosystem services are expedited with the growing human population. Repercussions of artificial light at night ALAN are much wider, as it varies from unicellular to higher organism. Subsequently, hastened pollution and over exploitation of natural resources accelerate the expeditious transformation of climatic phenomenon and further cause global biodiversity losses. Moreover, it has a crucial role in global biodiversity and ecosystem services losses via influencing the ecosystem biodiversity by modulating abundance, number and aggregation at every levels as from individual to biome levels. Along with these affects, it disturbs the population, genetics and landscape structures by interfering inter- and intra-species interactions and landscape formation processes. Furthermore, alterations in normal light/dark (diurnal) signalling disrupt the stable physiological, biochemical, and molecular processes and modulate the regulating, cultural and provisioning ecosystem services and ultimately disorganize the stable ecosystem structure and functions. Moreover, ALAN reshapes the abiotic component of the ecosystem, and as a key component of global warming via producing greenhouse gases via emitting light. By taking together the above facts, this review highlights the impact of ALAN on the ecosystem and its living and non-living components, emphasizing to the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. Further, we summarize the means of minimizing strategies of ALAN in the environment, which are very crucial to reduce the further spread of night light contamination in the environment and can be useful to minimize the drastic impacts on the ecosystem.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial 3342
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Author Skoufias, E.; Strobl, E.; Tveit, T.
Title Can we rely on VIIRS nightlights to estimate the short-term impacts of natural hazards? Evidence from five South East Asian countries Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2021 Publication Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk Abbreviated Journal Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk
Volume 12 Issue 1 Pages 381-404
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract This paper utilizes Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) nightlights to model damage caused by earthquakes, floods and typhoons in five South East Asian countries (Indonesia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam). For each type of hazard we examine the extent to which there is a difference in nightlight intensity between affected and non-affected cells based on (i) case studies of specific hazards; and (ii) fixed effect regression models akin to the double difference method to determine any effect that the different natural hazards might have had on the nightlight value. The VIIRS data has some shortcomings with regards to noise, seasonality and volatility that we try to correct for with new statistical methods. The results show little to no significance regardless of the methodology used. Possible explanations for the lack of significance could be underlying noise in the nightlight data and measurements or lack of measurements due to cloud cover. Overall, given the lack of consistency in the results, even though efforts were made to decrease volatility and remove noise, we conclude that researchers should be careful when analyzing natural hazard impacts with the help of VIIRS nightlights.
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ISSN 1947-5705 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3344
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Author Murugavel, B.; Kelber, A.; Somanathan, H.
Title Light, flight and the night: effect of ambient light and moon phase on flight activity of pteropodid bats Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2021 Publication Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals; Moonlight; Ambient light; Flight activity; Moon phases; Pteropodids; Twilight zones
Abstract Fruit-feeding pteropodid bats roost under varying light conditions. Some roost in trees with high exposure to daylight (> 1000 lx), while others roost in dark caves (< 0.1 lx). To understand the effect of ambient light intensity and moon phase on flight activity, we examined flight times across five lunar cycles in three pteropodid species whose roosts differ in daylight exposure. We found significant interspecific differences in flight emergence and termination times. All species initiated flights after sunset but Rousettus leschenaultii, which typically roosts in caves, delayed emergence (40 +/- 11 min) more than the two tree-roosting species Pteropus giganteus (16 +/- 6 min) and Cynopterus sphinx (19 +/- 7 min). R. leschenaultii terminated flights earlier (30 +/- 7 min before sunrise) than P. giganteus (11 +/- 11 min) and C. sphinx (16 +/- 10 min). All individuals from P. giganteus and C. sphinx roosts emerged within less than an hour, while emergence times were more spread out in the R. leschenaultii colony. Peak emergence times differed across moon phases in the cave-roosting R. leschenaultii but not in the other species. Flight activity in R. leschenaultii is restricted to comparatively lower light levels than the tree-roosting species. The observed interspecific differences suggest that bat species, sharing same landscapes may respond differently to light pollution.
Address IISER TVM Centre for Research and Education in Ecology and Evolution (ICREEE), School of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram, India
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 0340-7594 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:33537858 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3346
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Author Portnov, B.A.; Saad, R.; Trop, T.
Title Interactive Scenario-Based Assessment Approach of Urban Street Lighting and Its Application to Estimating Energy Saving Benefits Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2021 Publication Energies Abbreviated Journal Energies
Volume 14 Issue 2 Pages 378
Keywords Lighting; Energy; Perception
Abstract If excessive and misdirected, street lighting (SL) causes energy waste and might pose significant risks to humans and natural ecosystems. Based on data collected by an interactive user-oriented method, we developed a novel empirical approach that enables the spatial identification of over-illuminated areas in residential neighborhoods and calculation of potential energy savings that can be achieved there, by reducing excessive illumination. We applied the estimated model to a densely populated residential neighborhood in the City of Tel Aviv-Yafo in Israel, to test the proposed approach’s performance. According to our estimates, illumination levels can be lowered by up to 50% in approximately 60% of the neighborhood’s area, which is currently over-illuminated, thus leading to significant energy savings, while preserving a reasonable level of visual comfort associated with SL.
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ISSN 1996-1073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3348
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