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Author Murugavel, B.; Kelber, A.; Somanathan, H.
Title Light, flight and the night: effect of ambient light and moon phase on flight activity of pteropodid bats Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2021 Publication Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals; Moonlight; Ambient light; Flight activity; Moon phases; Pteropodids; Twilight zones
Abstract Fruit-feeding pteropodid bats roost under varying light conditions. Some roost in trees with high exposure to daylight (> 1000 lx), while others roost in dark caves (< 0.1 lx). To understand the effect of ambient light intensity and moon phase on flight activity, we examined flight times across five lunar cycles in three pteropodid species whose roosts differ in daylight exposure. We found significant interspecific differences in flight emergence and termination times. All species initiated flights after sunset but Rousettus leschenaultii, which typically roosts in caves, delayed emergence (40 +/- 11 min) more than the two tree-roosting species Pteropus giganteus (16 +/- 6 min) and Cynopterus sphinx (19 +/- 7 min). R. leschenaultii terminated flights earlier (30 +/- 7 min before sunrise) than P. giganteus (11 +/- 11 min) and C. sphinx (16 +/- 10 min). All individuals from P. giganteus and C. sphinx roosts emerged within less than an hour, while emergence times were more spread out in the R. leschenaultii colony. Peak emergence times differed across moon phases in the cave-roosting R. leschenaultii but not in the other species. Flight activity in R. leschenaultii is restricted to comparatively lower light levels than the tree-roosting species. The observed interspecific differences suggest that bat species, sharing same landscapes may respond differently to light pollution.
Address IISER TVM Centre for Research and Education in Ecology and Evolution (ICREEE), School of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram, India
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ISSN 0340-7594 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:33537858 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3346
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Author Portnov, B.A.; Saad, R.; Trop, T.
Title Interactive Scenario-Based Assessment Approach of Urban Street Lighting and Its Application to Estimating Energy Saving Benefits Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2021 Publication Energies Abbreviated Journal Energies
Volume 14 Issue 2 Pages 378
Keywords Lighting; Energy; Perception
Abstract If excessive and misdirected, street lighting (SL) causes energy waste and might pose significant risks to humans and natural ecosystems. Based on data collected by an interactive user-oriented method, we developed a novel empirical approach that enables the spatial identification of over-illuminated areas in residential neighborhoods and calculation of potential energy savings that can be achieved there, by reducing excessive illumination. We applied the estimated model to a densely populated residential neighborhood in the City of Tel Aviv-Yafo in Israel, to test the proposed approach’s performance. According to our estimates, illumination levels can be lowered by up to 50% in approximately 60% of the neighborhood’s area, which is currently over-illuminated, thus leading to significant energy savings, while preserving a reasonable level of visual comfort associated with SL.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1996-1073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3348
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Author Ditmer, M.A.; Iannarilli, F.; Tri, A.N.; Garshelis, D.L.; Carter, N.H.
Title Artificial night light helps account for observer bias in citizen science monitoring of an expanding large mammal population Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2021 Publication The Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol
Volume 90 Issue 2 Pages 330-342
Keywords Animals; Remote sensing; bears; human-wildlife interactions; occupancy model; range expansion; spatial bias; species monitoring
Abstract The integration of citizen scientists into ecological research is transforming how, where, and when data are collected, and expanding the potential scales of ecological studies. Citizen-science projects can provide numerous benefits for participants while educating and connecting professionals with lay audiences, potentially increasing the acceptance of conservation and management actions. However, for all the benefits, collection of citizen-science data is often biased towards areas that are easily accessible (e.g. developments and roadways), and thus data are usually affected by issues typical of opportunistic surveys (e.g. uneven sampling effort). These areas are usually illuminated by artificial light at night (ALAN), a dynamic sensory stimulus that alters the perceptual world for both humans and wildlife. Our goal was to test whether satellite-based measures of ALAN could improve our understanding of the detection process of citizen-scientist-reported sightings of a large mammal. We collected observations of American black bears Ursus americanus (n = 1,315) outside their primary range in Minnesota, USA, as part of a study to gauge population expansion. Participants from the public provided sighting locations of bears on a website. We used an occupancy modelling framework to determine how well ALAN accounted for observer metrics compared to other commonly used metrics (e.g. housing density). Citizen scientists reported 17% of bear sightings were under artificially lit conditions and monthly ALAN estimates did the best job accounting for spatial bias in detection of all observations, based on AIC values and effect sizes ( beta ^ = 0.81, 0.71-0.90 95% CI). Bear detection increased with elevated illuminance; relative abundance was positively associated with natural cover, proximity to primary bear range and lower road density. Although the highest counts of bear sightings occurred in the highly illuminated suburbs of the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan region, we estimated substantially higher bear abundance in another region with plentiful natural cover and low ALAN (up to ~375% increased predicted relative abundance) where observations were sparse. We demonstrate the importance of considering ALAN radiance when analysing citizen-scientist-collected data, and we highlight the ways that ALAN data provide a dynamic snapshot of human activity.
Address School for Environment and Sustainability, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-8790 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32895962 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3349
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Author Dar, A. A., Jamal, K.
Title THE DECLINE OF MOTHS GLOBALLY: A REVIEW OF POSSIBLE CAUSES Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2021 Publication Munis Entomology and Zoology Journal Abbreviated Journal
Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 310-319
Keywords Review; Animals
Abstract The dramatic increase in decline of moths constitutes a great threat to ecosystem, leads to biodiversity crisis of moths. Loss of moth diversity has been inadequately quantified because of nocturnal nature of moths. The substantial decline of moths has been reported in various countries such as U.K, U.S, Germany, Sweden, India, Netherlands, Siberia and New Zealand. 31%, 44%, 27% and 71% of moths declined in Great Britain, Southern Britain, Sweden and Netherlands respectively. Collapsing of moths is a prime concern, because they serve as food for wide range of taxa, such as birds, bats, spiders and reptiles. While as, moth larvae are fed on by insects, bacteria and fungi. The various major potential drivers responsible for causing dwindling of moth population are destruction of habitat, climatic change, intensification of agriculture, urbanization, chemical pollution, artificial light pollution and invasion of non-native species. In this article, overall review on the global decline of moths is discussed, including the preventive measures and future perspective.
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Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial 3350
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Author Rajput, S.; Naithani, M.; Meena, K.; Rana, S.
Title Light pollution: hidden perils in light and links to cancer Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2021 Publication Sleep Vigilance Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages in press
Keywords Review; Human Health
Abstract Light pollution is a rising global concern which impacts not only ecology but has a wide range of deleterious effect on human health as well. Artificial light at night (ALAN) has been linked to increased risk of cancers including shift workers at night. Apart from cancer, ALAN has been the cause of disrupted circadian rhythm, disturbances in sleep pattern, obesity, stress, alterations in the rhythmicity of gut microbiota and free radical damage. Melatonin, a wonder molecule dubbed as the hormone of darkness, appears to be involved in a plethora of physiological processes and abnormalities including control of sleep, circadian rhythms, retinal physiology, seasonal reproductive cycles, cancer development and growth, immune activity, antioxidation and free radical scavenging. Potential detrimental effects of artificial light are not known to all, hidden perils of light are yet to be brought in full public knowledge so that nighttime light can be dealt with effectively.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
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Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial 3352
Permanent link to this record