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Author Small, C.; Sousa, D.
Title Spatiotemporal evolution of COVID-19 infection and detection within night light networks: comparative analysis of USA and China Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2021 Publication Applied Network Science Abbreviated Journal Appl Netw Sci
Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract The spatial distribution of population affects disease transmission, especially when shelter in place orders restrict mobility for a large fraction of the population. The spatial network structure of settlements therefore imposes a fundamental constraint on the spatial distribution of the population through which a communicable disease can spread. In this analysis we use the spatial network structure of lighted development as a proxy for the distribution of ambient population to compare the spatiotemporal evolution of COVID-19 confirmed cases in the USA and China. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night Band sensor on the NASA/NOAA Suomi satellite has been imaging night light at ~ 700 m resolution globally since 2012. Comparisons with sub-kilometer resolution census observations in different countries across different levels of development indicate that night light luminance scales with population density over ~ 3 orders of magnitude. However, VIIRS’ constant ~ 700 m resolution can provide a more detailed representation of population distribution in peri-urban and rural areas where aggregated census blocks lack comparable spatial detail. By varying the low luminance threshold of VIIRS-derived night light, we depict spatial networks of lighted development of varying degrees of connectivity within which populations are distributed. The resulting size distributions of spatial network components (connected clusters of nodes) vary with degree of connectivity, but maintain consistent scaling over a wide range (5 × to 10 × in area & number) of network sizes. At continental scales, spatial network rank-size distributions obtained from VIIRS night light brightness are well-described by power laws with exponents near −2 (slopes near −1) for a wide range of low luminance thresholds. The largest components (104 to 105 km2) represent spatially contiguous agglomerations of urban, suburban and periurban development, while the smallest components represent isolated rural settlements. Projecting county and city-level numbers of confirmed cases of COVID-19 for the USA and China (respectively) onto the corresponding spatial networks of lighted development allows the spatiotemporal evolution of the epidemic (infection and detection) to be quantified as propagation within networks of varying connectivity. Results for China show rapid nucleation and diffusion in January 2020 followed by rapid decreases in new cases in February. While most of the largest cities in China showed new confirmed cases approaching zero before the end of February, most of these cities also showed distinct second waves of cases in March or April. Whereas new cases in Wuhan did not approach zero until mid-March, as of December 2020 it has not yet experienced a second wave of cases. In contrast, the results for the USA show a wide range of trajectories, with an abrupt transition from slow increases in confirmed cases in a small number of network components in January and February, to rapid geographic dispersion to a larger number of components shortly before mobility reductions occurred in March. Results indicate that while most of the upper tail of the network had been exposed by the end of March, the lower tail of the component size distribution has only shown steep increases since mid-June.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2364-8228 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3359
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Author Jägerbrand, A.K.
Title Development of an Indicator System for Local Governments to Plan and Evaluate Sustainable Outdoor Lighting Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2021 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability
Volume 13 Issue 3 Pages 1506
Keywords Lighting; Planning
Abstract Outdoor lighting offers many benefits to its users and is often considered a necessity for an active lifestyle when living in modern society. Sustainable outdoor lighting should fulfil the functional needs of the users, be cost- and energy-efficient, and result in minimal environmental impact. So far, a limited number of studies have been able to present clear strategies on how to plan and use outdoor lighting to ensure that it contributes towards sustainable development. Therefore, this study aimed to answer the following questions: (1) How many of the previously established sustainability indicators are already used by municipalities in their lighting planning? (2) Which types of indicators are not used by municipalities? Another aim of the study was to further develop the framework of sustainability indicators by adding new indicators that were identified from lighting plans of Swedish municipalities and the existing literature. In this study, lighting master plans from 16 randomly chosen Swedish municipalities with varying population sizes were analyzed. The results show that few sustainable indicators are used by the municipalities’ lighting plans, especially in the social dimension. The existing framework of sustainability indicators was developed by adding new indicators. Furthermore, 28 new indicators were identified, eight originated from new studies and the literature, and 20 originated from the municipalities’ lighting master plans. This study shows that there is a need for guidelines and recommendations for working with outdoor lighting from a sustainability perspective, especially in the social dimension of sustainability, where most of the new indicators were identified.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3360
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Author Umar, M.; Atif, S.; Hildebrandt, M.L.; Tahir, A.; Azmat, M.; Zeeshan, M.
Title Trends of Aerosol Optical Thickness Using VIIRS S-NPP During Fog Episodes in Pakistan and India Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2021 Publication Atmosphere Abbreviated Journal Atmosphere
Volume 12 Issue 2 Pages 242
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) is one of the important parameters for assessing regional and global level of climate change. Fog episodes have considerably increased in south Asia because of environmental factors, and the burning of agricultural residue leads to major social and economic problems. In present study, Mann-Kendall trend analysis of AOT and active fire events was done, and their significance were assessed using long-term (October 2012–February 2020) remote sensing data derived smog maps. Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite National Polar Partnership (VIIRS N-PP) was used to map AOT episodes over the northern region of Pakistan and India. Results reveal that AOT displays a significantly decreasing trend over the northern and eastern region of Pakistan and a similar decreasing trend from the Western to Eastern region of India. Furthermore, active fire events have a significantly increasing trend at the Northern region of Pakistan. However, fire events have a significantly decreasing trend over the southern and southeastern region of India. Additionally, statistically significant decreasing trends were observed for AOT over Chakwal (p-value = 0.2, ZMK = −2.3) and Patiala (p-value = 0.15, ZMK = −3.2). Fire events have a significantly increasing trend for Dera Ismail Khan (p-value = 0.01, ZMK = 1.9), Jhang (p-value = 0.01, ZMK = 1.9), and Chakwal (p-value = 0.01, ZMK = 1.8), while they are significantly decreasing trend near New Delhi (p-value = 0.2, ZMK = −0.9), Aligarh (p-value = 0.15, ZMK = −0.9) and Patiala (p-value = 0.2, ZMK = −0.8).
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2073-4433 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3361
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Author Xia, N.; Li, M.; Cheng, L.
Title Mapping Impacts of Human Activities from Nighttime Light on Vegetation Cover Changes in Southeast Asia Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2021 Publication Land Abbreviated Journal Land
Volume 10 Issue 2 Pages 185
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract It is commonly believed that the impacts of human activities have decreased the natural vegetation cover, while some promotion of the vegetation growth has also been found. In this study, negative or positive correlations between human impacts and vegetation cover were tested in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region during 2012–2018. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite—Day/Night Band (VIIRS/DNB) nocturnal data were used as a measure of human activities and the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS)/normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) diurnal data were used as a measure of vegetation cover. The temporal segmentation method was introduced to calculate features of two sets of time series with spatial resolution of about 500 m, including the overall trend, maximum trend, start date, and change duration. The regions with large variation in human activities (V-change region) were first extracted by the Gaussian fitted method, and 8.64% of the entire SEA (VIIRS overall trend <-0.2 or >0.4) was set as the target analysis area. According to statistics, the average overall VIIRS trend for the V-change region in SEA was about 2.12, with a slight NDVI increment. The time lag effect was also found between vegetation cover and human impacts change, with an average of 10.26 months. Our results indicated a slight green overall trend in the SEA region over the most recent 7 years. The spatial pattern of our trend analysis results can be useful for vegetation management and regional planning.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2073-445X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3362
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Author Bertani, D.E.; De Novellis, A.M.P.; Farina, R.; Latella, E.; Meloni, M.; Scala, C.; Valeo, L.; Galeazzi, G.M.; Ferrari, S.
Title “Shedding Light on Light”: A Review on the Effects on Mental Health of Exposure to Optical Radiation Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2021 Publication International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Abbreviated Journal Int J Environ Res Public Health
Volume 18 Issue 4 Pages
Keywords Review; Human Health; bio-psycho-social; calcitriol; light; light exposure; melatonin; mental health
Abstract In relation to human health and functioning, light, or more specifically optical radiation, plays many roles, beyond allowing vision. These may be summarized as: regulation of circadian rhythms; consequences of direct exposure to the skin; and more indirect effects on well-being and functioning, also related to lifestyle and contact with natural and urban environments. Impact on mental health is relevant for any of these specifications and supports a clinical use of this knowledge for the treatment of psychiatric conditions, such as depression or anxiety, somatic symptom disorder, and others, with reference to light therapy in particular. The scope of this narrative review is to provide a summary of recent findings and evidence on the regulating functions of light on human beings' biology, with a specific focus on mental health, its prevention and care.
Address Department of Biomedical & Metabolic Sciences and Neuroscience, School of Specialization in Psychiatry, University of Modena & Reggio Emilia, 41124 Modena, Italy
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1660-4601 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:33572423 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3363
Permanent link to this record