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Author Chen, J.; Zhao, F.; Zeng, N.; Oda, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Comparing a global high-resolution downscaled fossil fuel CO2 emission dataset to local inventory-based estimates over 14 global cities Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication Carbon Balance and Management Abbreviated Journal Carbon Balance Manag  
  Volume 15 Issue 1 Pages 9  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; City CO2 emissions; Emission inventory; Fossil fuel CO2 emissions; In-boundary; Odiac  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Compilation of emission inventories (EIs) for cities is a whole new challenge to assess the subnational climate mitigation effort under the Paris Climate Agreement. Some cities have started compiling EIs, often following a global community protocol. However, EIs are often difficult to systematically examine because of the ways they were compiled (data collection and emission calculation) and reported (sector definition and direct vs consumption). In addition, such EI estimates are not readily applicable to objective evaluation using modeling and observations due to the lack of spatial emission extents. City emission estimates used in the science community are often based on downscaled gridded EIs, while the accuracy of the downscaled emissions at city level is not fully assessed. RESULTS: This study attempts to assess the utility of the downscaled emissions at city level. We collected EIs from 14 major global cities and compare them to the estimates from a global high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 emission data product (ODIAC) commonly used in the science research community. We made necessary adjustments to the estimates to make our comparison as reasonable as possible. We found that the two methods produce very close area-wide emission estimates for Shanghai and Delhi (< 10% difference), and reach good consistency in half of the cities examined (< 30% difference). The ODIAC dataset exhibits a much higher emission compared to inventory estimates in Cape Town (+ 148%), Sao Paulo (+ 43%) and Beijing (+ 40%), possibly related to poor correlation between nightlight intensity with human activity, such as the high-emission and low-lighting industrial parks in developing countries. On the other hand, ODIAC shows lower estimates in Manhattan (- 62%), New York City (- 45%), Washington D.C. (- 42%) and Toronto (- 33%), all located in North America, which may be attributable to an underestimation of residential emissions from heating in ODIAC's nightlight-based approach, and an overestimation of emission from ground transportation in registered vehicles statistics of inventory estimates. CONCLUSIONS: The relatively good agreement suggests that the ODIAC data product could potentially be used as a first source for prior estimate of city-level CO2 emission, which is valuable for atmosphere CO2 inversion modeling and comparing with satellite CO2 observations. Our compilation of in-boundary emission estimates for 14 cities contributes towards establishing an accurate inventory in-boundary global city carbon emission dataset, necessary for accountable local climate mitigation policies in the future.  
  Address Goddard Earth Sciences Research and Technology, Universities Space Research Association, Columbia, MD, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1750-0680 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32430547 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2929  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Lu, W.; Liu, Y.; Wang, J.; Xu, W.; Wu, W.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, B.; Li, H.; Li, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Global proliferation of offshore gas flaring areas Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication Journal of Maps Abbreviated Journal Journal of Maps  
  Volume 16 Issue 2 Pages 396-404  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract The long-term venting and combustion of offshore associated gas have substantial adverse effects on the ecological environment, so characterizing the global proliferation of offshore gas flaring areas is very important for marine environmental protection and climate change research. However, the use of a single fire/light remote sensing product makes it difficult to conduct long-term observations. In this study, we detected global offshore gas flaring areas during the 27-year interval from 1992 to 2018, using temporal and spatial complementarity of six different remote sensing data products, which are as follows: DMSP-OLS Nighttime Lights; (A)ATSRs; MODIS and VIIRS activefire products; and VIIRS Night Fire and NighttimeLight. Our aim was to achieve more comprehensive extraction results and to analyze a longer time-interval than has been attempted previously. In addition, the resulting map ofthe global proliferation of offshore gas flaring areas enables their locational and temporal characteristics to be visualized.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1744-5647 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2930  
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Author Cope, K.L.; Schook, M.W.; Benard, M.F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Exposure to artificial light at night during the larval stage has delayed effects on juvenile corticosterone concentration in American toads, Anaxyrus americanus Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication General and Comparative Endocrinology Abbreviated Journal Gen Comp Endocrinol  
  Volume in press Issue Pages 113508  
  Keywords Animals; amphibian; anthropogenic light; carry-over effects; environmental stressor; glucocorticoid; predation  
  Abstract Artificial Light At Night (ALAN) is an environmental stressor that can disrupt individual physiology and ecological interactions. Hormones such as corticosterone are often responsible for mediating an organism's response to environmental stressors. We investigated whether ALAN was associated with a corticosterone response and whether it exacerbated the effects of another common stressor, predation. We tested for consumptive, non-consumptive, and physiological effects of ALAN and predator presence (dragonfly larvae) on a widespread amphibian, the American toad (Anaxyrus americanus). We found predators had consumptive (decreased survival) and non-consumptive (decreased growth) effects on larval toads. ALAN did not affect larval toads nor did it interact with the predator treatment to increase larval toad predation. Despite the consumptive and non-consumptive effects of predators, neither predators nor ALAN affected corticosterone concentration in the larval and metamorph life-stages. In contrast to studies in other organisms, we did not find any evidence that suggested ALAN alters predator-prey interactions between dragonfly larvae and toads. However, there was an inverse relationship between corticosterone and survival that was exacerbated by exposure to ALAN when predators were absent. Additionally, larval-stage exposure to ALAN increased corticosterone concentration in juvenile toads. Our results suggest the physiological effects of ALAN may not be demonstrated until later life-stages.  
  Address Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH 44016, USA. Electronic address: mfb38@case.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0016-6480 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32442544 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2931  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Maggi, E.; Serôdio, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial Light at Night: A New Challenge in Microphytobenthos Research Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication Frontiers in Marine Science Abbreviated Journal Front. Mar. Sci.  
  Volume 7 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Commentary; Plants  
  Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) has been recently recognized as a globally widespread anthropogenic disturbance, characterized by different intensities and spectra, as well as spatial and temporal variability. Among marine organisms, those living on coastal areas are particularly exposed to artificial light. Some recent studies anticipated a potential for influences of ALAN on microphytobenthos (MPB) on rocky shores, either direct or indirectly mediated by trophic relationships. Here we emphasize the need for further investigations in different habitats, as well as on synergistic interferences with other stressors already impinging on coastal areas. The study of effects of ALAN poses new challenges in MPB research, including those related to the use of instruments for measuring both the light environment and the functioning of microbial photoautotrophs at night, and to the development of common monitoring approaches and manipulative experiments.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2296-7745 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2935  
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Author Chen, M.; Zhang, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Measuring the regional non-observed economy in China with nighttime lights Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication International Journal of Emerging Markets Abbreviated Journal Ijoem  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Purpose

The non-observed economy (NOE) is a pervasive phenomenon worldwide, especially in developing countries, but the size of the NOE and its contributions to the overall economy are usually unknown. This paper presents an estimation of the average size of the NOE for the 31 provincial regions in China between 1992 and 2013.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime light data combined with 11 existing surveys on or measurements of NOE for 191 countries or regions throughout the world, to measure the size of the NOE.

Findings

The results show that the NOE share is unevenly distributed among China's provincial regions, with the smallest being 3.19% for Beijing and the largest being 69.71% for Ningxia. The national average is 43.11%, while the figures for the eastern region, middle region, northeastern region and western region are 39.3%, 47.6%, 44.7% and 43.6%, respectively. The NOE estimates are negatively correlated with the measured gross domestic product (GDP) and GDP per capita, which suggests that developed regions tend to have less NOE.

Originality/value

The nighttime lights are used to measure the NOE for China's provincial regions. Compared with traditional databases, one of the prominent features of nighttime lights is its objectivity, as there is little human interference; therefore, it can be used to achieve more accurate results.
 
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1746-8809 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2936  
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