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Author Ciach, M., & Fröhlich, A.
Title Ungulates in the city: light pollution and open habitats predict the probability of roe deer occurring in an urban environment Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Urban Ecosystems Abbreviated Journal
Volume 22 Issue 3 Pages 513–523
Keywords Animals; ungulates; Poland; Europe; roe deer; Capreolus capreolus
Abstract Although large and medium-sized herbivorous mammals avoid urbanized areas, they have recently begun to colonize towns and cities. In general, ungulates continue to avoid the centres of urban areas, and utilize mainly their thinly built-up outskirts. While extension of urban development is preventing ungulates from penetrating the urban landscape, the influence of noise and light pollution on the occurrence of mammalian herbivores is still poorly understood. Hence, we investigated the hypothesis that habitat availability shapes the distribution of roe deer Capreolus capreolus and artificial lightening discourages them from penetrating the urban landscape. Roe deer was recorded on 37% of randomly selected sample plots (N = 60) located within the city of Kraków (S Poland). The occupied plots contained significantly more open habitats, woodland patches were larger in them, but proximity to rivers, and noise and light pollution were significantly lower. The logistic regression model revealed that an increasing area of open habitats was positively correlated with the probability of roe deer occurring. However, the artificial lighting at night was negatively correlated with the probability of the species occurring: the negative effect of light pollution was mitigated by the greater area of open habitats. Our study highlights the very considerable potential of light pollution as a predictor of the occurrence of large mammals in the urban landscape. We argue that urbanization and the related artificial lighting at night may be a factor preventing ungulates from penetrating potentially suitable habitats in urban areas.
Address Department of Forest Biodiversity, Institute of Forest Ecology and Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, University of Agriculture, Kraków, Poland; michal.ciach(at)ur.krakow.pl
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2305
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Author Seymoure, B. M., Linares, C., & White, J.
Title Connecting spectral radiometry of anthropogenic light sources to the visual ecology of organisms Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Journal of Zoology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 308 Issue 2 Pages 93-110
Keywords Animals; Ecology; color space; ecological consequences; just noticeable difference; light pollution; photoreceptors; radiance; visual models; visual systems
Abstract Humans have drastically altered nocturnal environments with electric lighting. Animals depend on natural night light conditions and are now being inundated with artificial lighting. There are numerous artificial light sources that differ in spectral composition that should affect the perception of these light sources and due to differences in animal visual systems, the differences in color perception of these anthropogenic light sources should vary significantly. The ecological and evolutionary ramifications of these perceptual differences of light sources remain understudied. Here, we quantify the radiance of nine different street lights comprised of four different light sources: Metal Halide, Mercury Vapor, Light Emitting Diodes, and High‐Pressure Sodium and model how five animal visual systems will be stimulated by these light sources. We calculated the number of photons that photoreceptors in different visual systems would detect. We selected five visual systems: avian UV/VIS, avian V/VIS, human, wolf and hawk moth. We included non‐visual photoreceptors of vertebrates known for controlling circadian rhythms and other physiological traits. The nine light types stimulated visual systems and the photoreceptors within the visual systems differently. Furthermore, we modelled the chromatic contrast (Just Noticeable Differences [JNDs]) and color space overlap for each light type comparison for each visual system to see if organisms would perceive the lights as different colors. The JNDs of most light type comparisons were very high, indicating most visual systems would detect all light types as different colors, however mammalian visual systems would perceive many lights as the same color. We discuss the importance of understanding not only the brightness of artificial light types, but also the spectral composition of light types, as most organisms have different visual systems from humans. Thus, for researchers to understand how artificial light sources affect the visual environment of specific organisms and thus mitigate the effects, spectral information is crucial.
Address Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA; brett.seymoure(at)gmail.com
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher ZSL Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2306
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Author Fan, J., He, H., Hu, T., Zhang, P., Yu, X., & Zhou, Y.
Title Estimation of Landscape Pattern Changes in BRICS from 1992 to 2013 Using DMSP-OLS NTL Images Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal J Ind Soc Rem Sens
Volume 47 Issue 5 Pages 725–735
Keywords Remote Sensing; BRICS; Brazil; India; China; South Africa; nighttime light; night lights; DMSP-OLS
Abstract Nighttime light data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System are widely used for monitoring urbanization development. Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) countries have global economic and cultural influence in the new era. It was the first time for the researches about BRICS countries adopting nighttime light data to analyze the urbanization process. In this paper, we calibrated and extracted annual urbanized area patches from cities in BRICS based on a quadratic polynomial model. Nine landscape indexes were calculated to analyze urbanization process characteristics in BRICS. The results suggested that China and India both expanded more rapidly than other countries, with urban areas that increased by more than 100%. The expansion of large core cities was dominant in the urbanization of China, while emerging and expanding small urban patches were major forces in the urbanization of India. Since 1992, urbanization declined and urban areas shrunk in Russia, but core cities still maintained strength of urbanization. Due to economic recovery, urban areas near large cities in Russia began to expand. From 1992 to 2013, the urbanization process in South Africa developed slowly, as evidenced by time series fluctuations, but overall the development remained stable. The degree of urbanization in Brazil was greater than that in South Africa but less than that in Russia. Large-sized cities expanded slowly and small-sized cities clearly expanded in BRICS from 1992 to 2013.
Address School of Civil and Architectural Engineering,Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, China; anjf(at)sdut.edu.cn
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Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2307
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Author Young, L. C., VanderWerf, E. A., McKown M., Roberts, P., Schlueter, J., Vorsino, A., & Sischo, D.
Title Evidence of Newell’s Shearwaters and Hawaiian Petrels on Oahu, Hawaii Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication The Condor: Ornithological Applications Abbreviated Journal Condor
Volume 121 Issue 1 Pages 1-7
Keywords Animals; Remote Sensing
Abstract Hawaii’s only 2 endemic seabirds, Newell’s Shearwater (Puffinus auricularis newelli) and Hawaiian Petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis), are listed under the United States Endangered Species Act. Threats to both species include light attraction and fallout, collisions with power lines and other structures, predation by invasive animals, and habitat degradation. Both species were assumed to be extirpated from the island of Oahu despite limited survey effort. We used survey data from Kauai (both species) and Maui (Hawaiian Petrel only) to model suitable habitat and light conditions. We then projected this model onto Oahu to identify potential survey sites. From April to September of 2016–2017, we deployed automated acoustic recording units at 13 potentially suitable sites across Oahu. We detected Newell’s Shearwaters at 2 sites; one on the leeward slopes of Mount Kaala in the Waianae Mountains and another at Poamoho in the Koolau Mountains. We detected Hawaiian Petrels at one location on the windward slope of Mount Kaala. All 3 sites were in nearly intact native forest with steep slopes. The frequency of detections at these sites suggests that both species are regularly prospecting on Oahu and potentially could be breeding there. If they are breeding, these individuals could represent missing links in the population connectivity of both species among islands. Protecting any remnant breeding populations would be of high conservation value given their recent population declines.
Address Pacific Rim Conservation, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2308
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Author Garrett, J. K., Donald, P. F., & Gaston, K. J.
Title Skyglow extends into the world’s Key Biodiversity Areas Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Animal Conservation Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages cv.12480
Keywords Skyglow; Conservation; Biodiversity; Key Biodiversity Area; KBA
Abstract The proportion of the Earth’s surface that experiences a naturally dark environment at night is rapidly declining with the introduction of artificial light. Biological impacts of this change have been documented from genes to ecosystems, and for a wide diversity of environments and organisms. The likely severity of these impacts depends heavily on the relationship between the distribution of artificial night-time lighting and biodiversity. Here, we carry out a global assessment of the overlap between areas of conservation priority and the most recent atlas of artificial skyglow. We show that of the world’s Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs), less than a third have completely pristine night-time skies, about a half lie entirely under artificially bright skies and only about a fifth contain no area in which night-time skies are not polluted to the zenith. The extent of light pollution of KBAs varies by region, affecting the greatest proportion of KBAs in Europe and the Middle East. Statistical modelling revealed associations between light pollution within KBAs and associated levels of both gross domestic product and human population density. This suggests that these patterns will worsen with continued economic development and growth in the human population
Address Environment & Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, UK; j.k.garrett(at)exeter.ac.uk
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Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2309
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