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Author Qiang, Y.; Huang, Q.; Xu, J.
Title Observing Community Resilience from Space: Using Nighttime Lights to Model Economic Disturbance and Recovery Pattern in Natural Disaster Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Sustainable Cities and Society Abbreviated Journal Sustainable Cities and Society
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract A major challenge for measuring community resilience is the lack of empirical observation in disasters. As an effective tool for observing human activities on the earth surface, night-time light (NTL) remote sensing images can fill the gap of empirical data for measuring community resilience in natural disasters. This study introduces a quantitative framework to model the recovery pattern of economic activity in a natural disaster using the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) images. The utility of the framework is demonstrated in a case study of Hurricane Katrina, which uncovered the great economic impact of Katrina and spatial variation of the disturbance and recovery pattern of economic activity. Environmental and socio-economic factors that potentially influence the economic recovery were explored in statistical analyses. Instead of a static and holistic index, the framework measures resilience as a dynamic process. The analysis results provide actionable information for prompting resilience in diverse communities and in different phases of a disaster. In addition to Hurricane Katrina, the resilience modeling framework is applicable for other disaster types. The introduced approaches and findings increase our understanding about the complexity of community resilience and provide support for developing resilient and sustainable communities.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2210-6707 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2833
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Author Marchant, P.; Hale, J.D.; Sadler, J.P.
Title Does changing to brighter road lighting improve road safety? Multilevel longitudinal analysis of road traffic collision frequency during the relighting of a UK city Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health Abbreviated Journal J. Epidemiol. Community Health
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Public Safety; traffic safety; Roadway lighting; road safety; road traffic collisions; United Kingdom
Abstract Background A step change in the night environment is taking place, with the large-scale installation of bright, broad-spectrum road lighting such as white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). One justification for this is a reduction in road traffic collisions (RTCs). This study aimed to estimate the effect of new lighting on personal injury RTCs within a large UK city.

Methods We analysed a 9-year time series of weekly RTC personal injury counts in 132 areas of the city using multilevel modelling. The RTC rate over a full 24-hour period was the primary outcome; darkness and daylight RTC rates were secondary. The background change in RTC rate was separated from the change associated with the number of newly installed bright lamps by including a polynomial underlying time trend for the logarithm of the mean number of collisions per week for each area. The study was based on a rigorous, predesigned and archived protocol.

Results Within-area coefficients for the broad lighting effect were positive; as the number of bright lamps in an area increased, so did the RTC rate. The estimate for the increase in the within-area 24-hour RTC rate is 11% (95% CI 2% to 20%). The estimate of darkness-only RTCs is 16% (95% CI 2% to 32%). If the effect of lighting on darkness RTC rate is adjusted by that for daylight, one obtains 4% (95% CI −12% to +23%).

Conclusion No evidence was found for bright lamps leading to an improvement in road safety in any of the analyses. For this city, introducing brighter road lighting may have compromised safety rather than reducing harm.
Address Room 221, Leighton Hall, Leeds Beckett University, Headingley Campus, Leeds LS1 3HE, UK; p.marchant(at) leedsbeckett.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher BML Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2835
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Author Berge, J.; Geoffroy, M.; Daase, M.; Cottier, F.; Priou, P.; Cohen, J.H.; Johnsen, G.; McKee, D.; Kostakis, I.; Renaud, P.E.; Vogedes, D.; Anderson, P.; Last, K.S.; Gauthier, S.
Title Artificial light during the polar night disrupts Arctic fish and zooplankton behaviour down to 200 m depth Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Communications Biology Abbreviated Journal Commun Biol
Volume 3 Issue 1 Pages article 102
Keywords Animals
Abstract For organisms that remain active in one of the last undisturbed and pristine dark environments on the planet—the Arctic Polar Night—the moon, stars and aurora borealis may provide important cues to guide distribution and behaviours, including predator-prey interactions. With a changing climate and increased human activities in the Arctic, such natural light sources will in many places be masked by the much stronger illumination from artificial light. Here we show that normal working-light from a ship may disrupt fish and zooplankton behaviour down to at least 200 m depth across an area of >0.125 km2 around the ship. Both the quantitative and qualitative nature of the disturbance differed between the examined regions. We conclude that biological surveys in the dark from illuminated ships may introduce biases on biological sampling, bioacoustic surveys, and possibly stock assessments of commercial and non-commercial species.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2399-3642 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2837
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Author Puschnig, J.; Wallner, S.; Posch, T.
Title Circalunar variations of the night sky brightness – an FFT perspective on the impact of light pollution Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal
Volume 492 Issue 2 Pages 2622-2637
Keywords Skyglow; Moonlight
Abstract Circa-monthly activity conducted by moonlight is observed in many species on Earth. Given the vast amount of artificial light at night (ALAN) that pollutes large areas around the globe, the synchronization to the circalunar cycle is often strongly perturbed. Using 2-yr data from a network of 23 photometers (Sky Quality Meters; SQM) in Austria (latitude ∼48°), we quantify how light pollution impacts the recognition of the circalunar periodicity. We do so via frequency analysis of nightly mean sky brightnesses using Fast Fourier Transforms. A very tight linear relation between the mean zenithal night sky brightness (NSB) given in magSQMarcsec−2 and the amplitude of the circalunar signal is found, indicating that for sites with a mean zenithal NSB brighter than 16.5 magSQMarcsec−2 the lunar rhythm practically vanishes. This finding implies that the circalunar rhythm is still detectable (within the broad bandpass of the SQM) at most places around the globe, but its amplitude against the light polluted sky is strongly reduced. We find that the circalunar contrast in zenith is reduced compared to ALAN-free sites by factors of 19 in the state capital of Linz (∼200 000 inhabitants) and 13 in small towns, e.g. Freistadt and Mattighofen, with less than 10 000 inhabitants. Only two of our sites, both situated in national parks (Bodinggraben and Zöblboden), show natural circalunar amplitudes. At our urban sites, we further detect a strong seasonal signal that is linked to the amplification of anthropogenic skyglow during the winter months due to climatological conditions.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2838
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Author Fasciani, I.; Petragnano, F.; Aloisi, G.; Marampon, F.; Rossi, M.; Francesca Coppolino, M.; Rossi, R.; Longoni, B.; Scarselli, M.; Maggio, R.
Title A new threat to dopamine neurons: the downside of artificial light Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Neuroscience
Volume in press Issue Pages in press
Keywords Review; Human Health; Parkinson's disease; artificial light; dopamine neurons; melatonin; opsins; photoactivation
Abstract Growing awareness of adverse impacts of artificial light on human health has led to recognize light pollution as a significant global environmental issue. Despite, a large number of studies in rodent and monkey models of Parkinson's disease have reported that near infrared light has neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic neurons, recent findings have shown that prolonged exposure of rodents and birds to fluorescent artificial light results in an increase of neuromelanin granules in substantia nigra and loss of dopaminergic neurons. The observed detrimental effect seems to be dependent on a direct effect of light on the substantia nigra rather than a secondary effect of the alterations of circadian rhythms. Moreover, inferences from animal models to human studies have shown a positive correlation between the prevalence of Parkinson's disease and light pollution. The present article discusses experimental evidence supporting a potentially deleterious impact of light on dopaminergic neurons and highlights the mechanisms whereby light might damage neuronal tissue. Moreover, it analyses epidemiological evidence that suggests light pollution to be an environmental risk factor for Parkinson's disease.
Address Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy. Electronic address: roberto.maggio@univaq.it
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0306-4522 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32142863 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2839
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