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Author Zheng, Y.; Zhou, Q.; He, Y.; Wang, C.; Wang, X.; Wang, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title An Optimized Approach for Extracting Urban Land Based on Log-Transformed DMSP-OLS Nighttime Light, NDVI, and NDWI Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2021 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 766  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Quantitative and accurate urban land information on regional and global scales is urgently required for studying socioeconomic and eco-environmental problems. The spatial distribution of urban land is a significant part of urban development planning, which is vital for optimizing land use patterns and promoting sustainable urban development. Composite nighttime light (NTL) data from the Defense Meteorological Program Operational Line-Scan System (DMSP-OLS) have been proven to be effective for extracting urban land. However, the saturation and blooming within the DMSP-OLS NTL hinder its capacity to provide accurate urban information. This paper proposes an optimized approach that combines NTL with multiple index data to overcome the limitations of extracting urban land based only on NTL data. We combined three sources of data, the DMSP-OLS, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and the normalized difference water index (NDWI), to establish a novel approach called the vegetation–water-adjusted NTL urban index (VWANUI), which is used to rapidly extract urban land areas on regional and global scales. The results show that the proposed approach reduces the saturation of DMSP-OLS and essentially eliminates blooming effects. Next, we developed regression models based on the normalized DMSP-OLS, the human settlement index (HSI), the vegetation-adjusted NTL urban index (VANUI), and the VWANUI to analyze and estimate urban land areas. The results show that the VWANUI regression model provides the highest performance of all the models tested. To summarize, the VWANUI reduces saturation and blooming, and improves the accuracy with which urban areas are extracted, thereby providing valuable support and decision-making references for designing sustainable urban development.  
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  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3416  
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Author Baddiley, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light pollution colour changes at MHAONB, from distant town conversions to blue-rich LED lighting, implications for rural UK skies Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2021 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume in press Issue Pages 107574  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract The sky in the Malvern Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (MHAONB) has been monitored continually since 2012, when a dark sky survey of the area was carried out commissioned by Malvern Hills Conservators. Ever since then at F.C.Mathon, the sky brightness has been measured continually, in the last few years at minute intervals in all weathers. On the darkest of nights, a fisheye lensed camera was used at the same intervals. There is a trend in brightness distribution and colour changes on the sky, especially towards the horizon, with clearly separated bright sky domes. The sky quality meter (SQM) photometry data near zenith does not show any great change. In 2015, Malvern Hills Conservators commissioned the author for modelling of the effect on the MHAONB sky, of the ongoing blue rich LED re-lighting throughout Herefordshire.

The SQM photometry shows the sky brightness are very weather dependent; and the camera shows colour changes from orange-pink to blue-rich LEDs. Besides the trend over recent years to blue white from orange, changes can occur over hours or even minutes, depending on cloud cover over individual towns on or beyond the horizon, and local humidity levels. It can vary from orange to blue and red. Clear skies can vary in overall colour from one night to another and brightness falls overnight. This is shown in isophotes and accurate profile curve fitting. The effect of 2020 lockdown is included. A measurement was made of the clear air back scatter ratio from a known luminance source which can be used to estimate the sky visibility degradation from any planned lighting scheme.

For the rural UK, the Milky Way is only 20% contrast to background at zenith on the darkest nights, (MHAONB 21.10 mag.arcsec-2), doubling the road light level across Europe would make it invisible.
 
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3417  
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Author Martín, B.; Pérez, H.; Ferrer, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light-Emitting Diodes (LED): A Promising Street Light System to Reduce the Attraction to Light of Insects Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2021 Publication Diversity Abbreviated Journal Diversity  
  Volume 13 Issue 2 Pages 89  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology  
  Abstract Currently, there is a demand for more energy-efficient lighting sources, however, light emitted by different lighting systems differs in primary properties such as intensity, propagation direction, and wavelength spectrum, among others, and these properties may affect insect light attraction. Despite the energetic benefits of light-emitting diodes (LED) as street light systems, their ecological impacts on insects have not yet been tested on a wide range of taxa. Using an experimental approach, we showed that LED street lights lead to a reduction in the total number of insects captured with light traps in a wide range of families. Coleoptera and Lepidoptera orders were the most sensitive groups to ecological light pollution in the study area. We suggest that LED was the least attractive light system for most of the affected groups both because of its very little emitted short-wavelength light and because of its lower light intensity. We expect that the more and more widespread use of LED lights as a measure to reduce economic costs of outdoor lighting should lead to a lower attraction to street lights in most of the affected insect taxa and to diminish the negative impacts of artificial light attraction on the ecosystems.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1424-2818 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3418  
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Author Challéat, S.; Barré, K.; Laforge, A.; Lapostolle, D.; Franchomme, M.; Sirami, C.; Le Viol, I.; Milian, J.; Kerbiriou, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Grasping darkness: the dark ecological network as a social-ecological framework to limit the impacts of light pollution on biodiversity Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2021 Publication Ecology and Society Abbreviated Journal E&S  
  Volume 26 Issue 1 Pages  
  Keywords Darkness; Planning; Ecology  
  Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is nowadays recognized as a major anthropogenic pressure on the environment on a global scale and as such is called light pollution. Through its attractive or deterrent effects, and its disruption of the biological clock for many animal and plant taxa, ALAN is increasingly recognized as a major threat to global biodiversity, which ultimately alters the amount, the quality, and the connectivity of available habitats for taxa. Biodiversity conservation tools should, therefore, include ALAN spatial and temporal effects. The ecological network, i.e., the physical and functional combination of natural elements that promote habitat connectivity, provides a valuable framework for that purpose. Understood as a social-ecological framework, it offers the opportunity to take into account the multiple uses of nocturnal spaces and times, by humans and nonhumans alike. Here we present the concept of “dark ecological network.” We show this concept is able to grasp the effects of ALAN in terms of habitat disturbances and integrates temporal dimensions of ecological processes into biodiversity conservation planning. Moreover, it is also intended to trivialize the practices of darkness protection by turning them into the ordinary practices of land use planning. From an operational point of view, the challenge is to translate the levers for reducing ALAN-induced effects into a political method for its “territorialization.” To achieve this objective, we propose a course of action that consists of building an interdisciplinary repertoire of contextualized knowledge (e.g., impacts on wildlife, human/lightscape relationship, existing legal tools, etc.), in order to deduce from it a number of practical supports for the governance of the dark ecological network in response to societal and ecological issues.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1708-3087 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3419  
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Author Forsburg, Z.R.; Guzman, A.; Gabor, C.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light at light (ALAN) affects the stress physiology but not the behavior or growth of Rana berlandieri and Bufo valliceps Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2021 Publication Environmental Pollution Abbreviated Journal Environmental Pollution  
  Volume in press Issue Pages 116775  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) alters the natural light dark patterns in ecosystems. ALAN can have a suite of effects on community structure and is a driver of evolutionary processes that influences a range of behavioral and physiological traits. Our understanding of possible effects of ALAN across species amphibians is lacking and research is warranted as ALAN could contribute to stress and declines of amphibian populations, particularly in urban areas. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to constant light or pulsed ALAN would physiologically stress Rio Grande leopard frog (Rana berlandieri) and Gulf Coast toad (Bufo valliceps) tadpoles. We reared tadpoles under constant or pulsed (on and off again) ALAN for 14 days and measured corticosterone release rates over time using a non-invasive water-borne hormone protocol. ALAN treatments did not affect behavior or growth. Tadpoles of both species had higher corticosterone (cort) release rates after 14 days of constant light exposure. Leopard frog tadpoles had lower cort release rates after exposure to pulsed ALAN while toad tadpoles had higher cort release rates. These results suggest that short-term exposure to constant or pulsed light at night may contribute to stress in tadpoles but that each species differentially modulated their cort response to ALAN exposure and a subsequent stressor. This flexibility in the upregulation and downregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis response may indicate an alternative mechanism for diminishing the deleterious effects of chronic stress. Nonetheless, ALAN should be considered in management and conservation plans for amphibians.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3420  
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