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Author Marwan, W.; Hegemann, P.; Oesterhelt, D.
Title Single photon detection by an archaebacterium Type Journal Article
Year (up) 1988 Publication Journal of Molecular Biology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Molecular Biology
Volume 199 Issue 4 Pages 663-664
Keywords Bacteria
Abstract Halobacteria are attracted by green and repelled by near ultraviolet or blue light. The photophobic response to blue light is mediated by the retinal protein P480. The analysis of stimulus response curves with Poisson statistical methods reveals that the photophobic response can be elicited at minimum by a single photon.
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ISSN 0022-2836 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2754
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Author Garstang, R.H.
Title The Status and Prospects for Ground-Based Observatory Sites Type Journal Article
Year (up) 1989 Publication Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics Abbreviated Journal Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys.
Volume 27 Issue 1 Pages 19-40
Keywords Skyglow
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ISSN 0066-4146 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2437
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Author Garstang, R. H.
Title Predictions of Future Light Pollution for Ground-Based Observatory Sites Type Journal Article
Year (up) 1989 Publication Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal
Volume 21 Issue Pages 759
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract In a paper now in press (P.A.S.P. March 1989) we have given details of an improved model for calculating the light pollution caused by one or more cities at an observatory or prospective observatory site. The principal difference in the new model from our earlier one is the inclusion of the effects of the curvature of the Earth, which are significant for the large cities at large distances from mountain observatories.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2545
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Author Garstang, R.H.
Title Dust and Light Pollution Type Journal Article
Year (up) 1991 Publication The Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal
Volume 103 Issue Pages 1109-1116
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract We have refined our model for the prediction ofthe brightness ofthe night sky due to man-made light pollution by the addition of an ozone layer, by the use ofa more accurate representation ofthe atmospheric molecular density variation as a function ofheight, and by using a better mathematical representation ofthe scattering angular function of aerosols. Each ofthese modifications leads to a small reduction in the predicted brightness ofthe night sky. We have also added to our model a thin layer ofdust ofarbitrary optical thickness and height above sea level. We have studied dust clouds at various heights and ofvarious optical thicknesses. Most ofour calculations have been performed for Kitt Peak National Observatory. Most calculations have used scattering and absorption coefficients appropriate for volcanic clouds; a few calculations refer to desert dust. Light pollution is reduced by a dust cloud ofmoderate density whose altitude is below about 10 km (for the V band) and increased for dust clouds at greater altitudes. Observations from good sites are not likely to be greatly affected by the increases in light pollution caused by volcanic clouds at altitudes oforder 20 km.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2523
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Author L.Imhoff, M.; Lawrence, W.T.; Stutzer, D.C.; Elvidge, C.D.
Title A technique for using composite DMSP/OLS “City Lights” satellite data to map urban area Type Journal Article
Year (up) 1997 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment
Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 361-370
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract A Tresholding technique was used to convert a prototype “city lights” data set from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Geophysical Data Center (NOAAINGDC) into a map of “urban areas” for the continental United States. Thresholding was required to adapt the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSPIOLS)-based NGDC data set into an urban map because the values reported in the prototype represent a cumulative percentage lighted for each pixel extracted from hundreds of nighttime cloud screened orbits, rather than any suitable land-cover classification. The cumulative percentage lighted data could not be used alone because the very high gain of the OLS nighttime photomultiplier configuration can. lead to a pixel (2.7X2.7 km) appearing “lighted” even with very low intensity, nonurban light sources. We found that a threshold of %89% yielded the best results, removing ephemeral light sources and “blooming” of light onto water when adjacent to cities while still leaving the dense urban core intact. This approach gave very good results when compared with the urban areas as defined by the 1990 U. S. Census; the “urban” area from our analysis being only 5% less than that of the Census. The Census was also used to derive population.- and housing-density statistics for the continent-wide “city lights” analysis; these averaged 1033 persons/km2 and 426 housing units/ king, respectively. The use of a nighttime sensor to determine the location and estimate the density of population based on light sources has proved feasible in this exploratory effort. However, issues concerning the use of census data as a benchmark for evaluating the accuracy of remotely sensed imagery are discussed, and potential improvements in the sensor regarding spatial resolution, instrument gain, and pointing accuracy are addressed.
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ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2220
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