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Author Small, C.; Elvidge, C.D.; Balk, D.; Montgomery, M.
Title Spatial scaling of stable night lights Type Journal Article
Year (up) 2011 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment
Volume 115 Issue 2 Pages 269-280
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract City size distributions, defined on the basis of population, are often described by power laws. Zipf's Law states that the exponent of the power law for rank-size distributions of cities is near −1. Verification of power law scaling for city size distributions at continental and global scales is complicated by small sample sizes, inappropriate estimation techniques, inconsistent definitions of urban extent and variations in the accuracy and spatial resolution of census administrative units. We attempt to circumvent some of these complications by using a continuous spatial proxy for anthropogenic development and treat it as a spatial complement to population distribution. We quantify the linearity and exponent of the rank-size distribution of spatially contiguous patches of stable night light over a range of brightnesses corresponding to different intensities of development. Temporally stable night lights, as measured by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-Operational Line Scanner (DMSP-OLS), provide a unique proxy for anthropogenic development. Brightness and spatial extent of emitted light are correlated to population density (Sutton et al., 2001), built area density (Elvidge et al., 2007c) and economic activity (Doll et al., 2006, Henderson et al., 2009) at global scales and within specific countries. Using a variable brightness threshold to derive spatial extent of developed land area eliminates the complication of administrative definitions of urban extent and makes it possible to test Zipf's Law in the spatial dimension for a wide range of anthropogenic development. Higher brightness thresholds generally correspond to more intense development while lower thresholds extend the lighted area to include smaller settlements and less intensively developed peri-urban and agricultural areas. Using both Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) to estimate power law linearity and exponent of the resulting rank-size distributions across a range of upper tail cutoffs, we consistently find statistically significant exponents in the range −0.95 to −1.11 with an abrupt transition to very large, extensively connected, spatial networks of development near the low light detection limit of the sensor. This range of exponents and transition are observed at both continental and global scales. The results suggest that Zipf's Law also holds for spatial extent of anthropogenic development across a range of intensities at both continental and global scales. The implication is that the dynamics of urban growth and development may be represented as spatial phase transitions when the spatial extent and intensity of development are treated as continuous variables rather than discrete entities.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2889
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Author Falchi, F.; Cinzano, P.; Elvidge, C.D.; Keith, D.M.; Haim, A.
Title Limiting the impact of light pollution on human health, environment and stellar visibility Type Journal Article
Year (up) 2011 Publication Journal of Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal J Environ Manage
Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages 2714-2722
Keywords Animals; Animals, Wild; Conservation of Natural Resources; Environment; *Environmental Pollution; Eye; *Health; Humans; Lighting/*adverse effects/standards; Melatonin/*antagonists & inhibitors; Sodium; Vision, Ocular/*physiology; Visual Perception
Abstract Light pollution is one of the most rapidly increasing types of environmental degradation. Its levels have been growing exponentially over the natural nocturnal lighting levels provided by starlight and moonlight. To limit this pollution several effective practices have been defined: the use of shielding on lighting fixture to prevent direct upward light, particularly at low angles above the horizon; no over lighting, i.e. avoid using higher lighting levels than strictly needed for the task, constraining illumination to the area where it is needed and the time it will be used. Nevertheless, even after the best control of the light distribution is reached and when the proper quantity of light is used, some upward light emission remains, due to reflections from the lit surfaces and atmospheric scatter. The environmental impact of this “residual light pollution”, cannot be neglected and should be limited too. Here we propose a new way to limit the effects of this residual light pollution on wildlife, human health and stellar visibility. We performed analysis of the spectra of common types of lamps for external use, including the new LEDs. We evaluated their emissions relative to the spectral response functions of human eye photoreceptors, in the photopic, scotopic and the 'meltopic' melatonin suppressing bands. We found that the amount of pollution is strongly dependent on the spectral characteristics of the lamps, with the more environmentally friendly lamps being low pressure sodium, followed by high pressure sodium. Most polluting are the lamps with a strong blue emission, like Metal Halide and white LEDs. Migration from the now widely used sodium lamps to white lamps (MH and LEDs) would produce an increase of pollution in the scotopic and melatonin suppression bands of more than five times the present levels, supposing the same photopic installed flux. This increase will exacerbate known and possible unknown effects of light pollution on human health, environment and on visual perception of the Universe by humans. We present quantitative criteria to evaluate the lamps based on their spectral emissions and we suggest regulatory limits for future lighting.
Address Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologia dell'Inquinamento Luminoso, Via Roma 13, I-36106 Thiene, Italy. falchi(at)lightpollution.it
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0301-4797 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:21745709 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 3031
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Author Daneshmandi, M.; Neiseh, F.; SadeghiShermeh, M.; Ebadi, A.
Title Effect of eye mask on sleep quality in patients with acute coronary syndrome Type Journal Article
Year (up) 2012 Publication Journal of Caring Sciences Abbreviated Journal J Caring Sci
Volume 1 Issue 3 Pages 135-143
Keywords Human Health
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Sleep is one of the basic human needs and sleep deprivation causes nu-merous adverse effects on the human body and mind. Due to reduced sleep quality in patients with acute coronary syndrome, this study was carried out to determine the effect of eye mask on sleep quality in patients with acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: In this two-group controlled clinical trial, sixty patients with acute coronary syndrome in the coronary care units of Baqiyatallah Hospital in Tehran in 2010 were selected by purposeful sampling method and randomly allocated to two groups of case and control. In the case group, in the second night stay, the intervention of eye mask was done per night and by using the Petersburg's sleep quality index; sleep quality was evaluated during and at the end of hospitalization. Then data were analyzed by paired t-test, independent t-test, Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficient and SPSS software version 19. RESULTS: Total sleep quality score of the case group was significantly decreased after intervention (4.86 +/- 1.88) from before intervention (10.46 +/- 4.09) (p < 0.000). In addi-tion, total score of sleep quality after intervention in the case group (4.86 +/- 1.88) was significant different from the control group (8.43 +/- 1.97) (p < 0.005). CONCLUSION: Using eye mask, as an economical and uncomplicated method, can improve sleep quality in patients with acute coronary syndrome in the coronary care units and can be used as an alternative method of treatment instead of drug therapy.
Address PhD ,Assistant Professor, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2251-9920 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:25276688; PMCID:PMC4161075 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2252
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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Holker, F.
Title Window illumination should be expected to poorly correlate with satellite brightness measurements Type Journal Article
Year (up) 2012 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int
Volume 29 Issue 1 Pages 87-8
Keywords Commentary; Instrumentation; Human Health
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:22217106 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2533
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Author Gupta, N.; Lata, H.; Kaur, A.
Title Effect of glare on night time driving in alcoholic versus non-alcoholic professional drivers Type Journal Article
Year (up) 2012 Publication International Journal of Applied & Basic Medical Research Abbreviated Journal Int J Appl Basic Med Res
Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 128-131
Keywords Vision; Public Safety; Glare; Alcohol; driving; glare recovery
Abstract CONTEXT: The use of alcohol during nighttime driving may affect recovery from glare leading to increased traffic accidents. OBJECTIVE: To compare the glare recovery time in alcoholic versus non-alcoholic drivers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Alcoholic (n = 25) and non-alcoholic drivers (n = 25) were subjected to glare recovery test and they also filled a questionnaire about the nighttime driving. RESULTS: The glare recovery time got prolonged in alcoholic drivers and they also complained of more problems during nighttime driving as compared to non-alcoholic drivers. CONCLUSIONS: The use of alcohol delays recovery from glare during nighttime driving. This can have considerable implications for developing countries in improving regulations for driving licensing.
Address Department of Physiology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital Ludhiana, Punjab, India
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Kluwer Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2229-516X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23776826; PMCID:PMC3678693 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2834
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