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Author Clanton, N.
Title Opinion: Light pollution … is it important? Type Journal Article
Year (up) 2014 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology
Volume 46 Issue 1 Pages 4-4
Keywords Commentary
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2712
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Author Tronin A. A.; Gornyy V. I.; Kritsuk S. G.; Latypov I. Sh.
Title Nighttime Lights As A Quantitative Indicator Of Anthropogenic Load On Ecosystems Type Journal Article
Year (up) 2014 Publication Current Problems In Remote Sensing Of The Earth From Space Abbreviated Journal
Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 237 - 244
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Nighttime lights of the Earth’s surface are considered as integral and quantitative indicator of anthropogenic load on ecosystems in the framework of energetic approach for ecological safety level rating. Nighttime lights have high correlation with primary energy consumption at the regional level. Nighttime radiation recorded on satellite Suomi NPP (radiometer VIIRS) was recalculated to primary energy consumption. Photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by plants is determined from ecosystem primary production. EOS satellite system product MOD17 supplies global primary production information. Energetic approach is based on comparison of photosynthetically active radiation, absorbed by plants and anthropogenic energy load on ecosystems. Ecological safety level was calculated as the relation of photosynthetically active radiation to anthropogenic load on ecosystems. Ecological safety map for northwest part of European Russia was compiled with high spatial resolution on the basis of nighttime lights and ecosystem primary production satellite data. The highest level of ecological safety was defined for Karelia and Arkhangelsk region where anthropogenic load on ecosystems is relatively moderate and plants receive enough solar radiation to parry threats to ecosystem service. The very low ecological safety level was observed in St-Petersburg that is explained by high energy load and small area of urban agglomeration.
Address
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2070-7401 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial 3178
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Author Wren, W.; Locke, S.
Title Upgraded Rig Lighting Improves Night Time Visibility While Reducing Stray Light and the Threat to Dark Skies in West Texas Type Conference Article
Year (up) 2015 Publication Society of Petroleum Engineers Abbreviated Journal Soc. Petrol. Engr.
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Lighting; outdoor lighting; petroleum; oil and gas; lighting engineering
Abstract McDonald Observatory, part of the University of Texas at Austin, is a world-class astronomical-research facility representing hundreds of millions of dollars of public and private investment that is increasingly threatened by nighttime lighting from oil-and-gas-related activities in and around the Permian Basin. Established in the remote Davis Mountains of West Texas in 1932, the observatory is home to some of the world's largest telescopes and it has continued as a world-renowned research center. Dark night skies are crucial to its mission. Since 2010, however, the sky along the observatory's northern horizon, in the direction of the Permian Basin, has been steadily and rapidly brightening, due to new exploration for oil and gas. The pace has been accelerating: More than 2,000 applications were filed over the past year to drill in the region. In 2011, the State of Texas enacted a law that instructs the seven counties surrounding McDonald Observatory, an area covering some 28,000 square miles, to adopt outdoor lighting ordinances designed to preserve the dark night skies for ongoing astronomical research at the observatory. Most had already done so voluntarily, but additional effort is needed throughout the area to address fast-moving energy-exploration activities.

A joint project between McDonald Observatory and Pioneer Energy Services (PES) has demonstrated that many of the adverse effects of oilfield lighting can be mitigated, without jeopardizing safety, through proper shielding and aiming of light fixtures. Beginning July, 2013, PES granted the observatory access to a working rig, Pioneer Rig #29. Every time the rig moved to a new location, there was an opportunity to install shields, re-aim floodlights, and evaluate effectiveness.

This joint project demonstrated that, in many cases, nighttime visibility on the rig can be significantly improved. Many light fixtures, which had been sources of blinding glare due to of lack of shielding, poor placement, or poor aiming, were made better and safer, using optional glare shields that are offered by manufacturers for a variety of fixture models. Proper shielding and aiming of existing fixtures improves visibility and reduces wasted uplight. New lighting systems that take advantage of light-emitting-diode technology also promise better directionality, reduced fuel consumption, and darker skies overhead.

The oil-and-gas industry has been lighting its exploration and production activities in much same way for more than 100 years, with little to no consideration of environmental impacts. The opportunity exists to adopt new lighting practices and technologies that improve safety, reduce costs, and help preserve our vanishing night skies so that important ongoing scientific exploration can continue.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Society of Petroleum Engineers Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes SPE E&P Health, Safety, Security and Environmental Conference-Americas held in Denver, Colorado, USA, 16–18 March 2015 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1993
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Author Baskaran, T.; Min, B.; Uppal, Y.
Title Election cycles and electricity provision: Evidence from a quasi-experiment with Indian special elections Type Journal Article
Year (up) 2015 Publication Journal of Public Economics Abbreviated Journal Journal of Public Economics
Volume 126 Issue Pages 64-73
Keywords Remote Sensing; India; South Asia
Abstract We present evidence from India showing that state governments induce electoral cycles in electricity service provision. Our data and research strategy allow us to build on models of political business cycles and targeted distribution in two important ways. First, we demonstrate that by manipulating the flow of critical inputs into economic activity like electricity, elected leaders can influence economic outcomes even in contexts where they have constrained fiscal capacity. Second, we identify the effect of elections on electricity provision by focusing on special elections held for exogenous reasons. Our results show that state governments induce substantive increases in electricity service to constituencies that hold special elections. Manipulation of the power supply is stronger in contested constituencies and during special elections held in states where the government commands only a small majority. Overall, we find no evidence of positive welfare effects from the electoral manipulation of electricity supply.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0047-2727 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2029
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Author Ou, J.; Liu, X.; Li, X.; Li, M.; Li, W.
Title Evaluation of NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Data for Mapping Global Fossil Fuel Combustion CO2 Emissions: A Comparison with DMSP-OLS Nighttime Light Data Type Journal Article
Year (up) 2015 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 10 Issue 9 Pages e0138310
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Recently, the stable light products and radiance calibrated products from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) have been useful for mapping global fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at fine spatial resolution. However, few studies on this subject were conducted with the new-generation nighttime light data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Satellite, which has a higher spatial resolution and a wider radiometric detection range than the traditional DMSP-OLS nighttime light data. Therefore, this study performed the first evaluation of the potential of NPP-VIIRS data in estimating the spatial distributions of global CO2 emissions (excluding power plant emissions). Through a disaggregating model, three global emission maps were then derived from population counts and three different types of nighttime lights data (NPP-VIIRS, the stable light data and radiance calibrated data of DMSP-OLS) for a comparative analysis. The results compared with the reference data of land cover in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou show that the emission areas of map from NPP-VIIRS data have higher spatial consistency of the artificial surfaces and exhibit a more reasonable distribution of CO2 emission than those of other two maps from DMSP-OLS data. Besides, in contrast to two maps from DMSP-OLS data, the emission map from NPP-VIIRS data is closer to the Vulcan inventory and exhibits a better agreement with the actual statistical data of CO2 emissions at the level of sub-administrative units of the United States. This study demonstrates that the NPP-VIIRS data can be a powerful tool for studying the spatial distributions of CO2 emissions, as well as the socioeconomic indicators at multiple scales.
Address School of Geography and Planning, and Guangdong Key Laboratory for Urbanization and Geo-simulation, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:26390037; PMCID:PMC4577086 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2272
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