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Author Lorenc, T.; Petticrew, M.; Whitehead, M.; Neary, D.; Clayton, S.; Wright, K.; Thomson, H.; Cummins, S.; Sowden, A.; Renton, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Environmental interventions to reduce fear of crime: systematic review of effectiveness Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2013 Publication Systematic Reviews Abbreviated Journal Syst Rev  
  Volume 2 Issue Pages 30  
  Keywords *Crime; *Environment Design; *Fear; Humans; Milieu Therapy/*standards; *Public Health; *Safety  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Fear of crime is associated with negative health and wellbeing outcomes, and may mediate some impacts of the built environment on public health. A range of environmental interventions have been hypothesized to reduce the fear of crime. METHODS: This review aimed to synthesize the literature on the effectiveness of interventions in the built environment to reduce the fear of crime. Systematic review methodology, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidance, was used. Studies of environmental interventions which reported a fear of crime outcome and used any prospective evaluation design (randomized controlled trial (RCT), trial or uncontrolled before-and-after study) were included. Eighteen databases were searched. The Hamilton tool was used to assess quality. A narrative synthesis of findings was undertaken. RESULTS: A total of 47 studies were included, 22 controlled and 25 uncontrolled, with total sample sizes ranging from n = 52 to approximately n = 23,000. Thirty-six studies were conducted in the UK, ten studies in the USA and one study in the Netherlands. The quality of the evidence overall is low. There are some indications that home security improvements and non-crime-related environmental improvements may be effective for some fear of crime outcomes. There is little evidence that the following reduce fear of crime: street lighting improvements, closed-circuit television (CCTV), multi-component environmental crime prevention programs or regeneration programs. CONCLUSIONS: There is some evidence for the effectiveness of specific environmental interventions in reducing some indicators of fear of crime, but more attention to the context and possible confounders is needed in future evaluations of complex social interventions such as these.  
  Address Department of Social and Environmental Health Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, 5-17 Tavistock Place, London, WC1H 9SH, UK. theo.lorenc@lshtm.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2046-4053 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23663285; PMCID:PMC3660218 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 251  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Solano Lamphar, H.A.; Kocifaj, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light pollution in ultraviolet and visible spectrum: effect on different visual perceptions Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 8 Issue 2 Pages e56563  
  Keywords Lighting; Animals; *Environmental Pollution; Humans; Insects; Light; Lighting/*adverse effects; Models, Theoretical; *Visual Perception  
  Abstract In general terms, lighting research has been focused in the development of artificial light with the purpose of saving energy and having more durable lamps. However, the consequences that artificial night lighting could bring to the human being and living organisms have become an important issue recently. Light pollution represents a significant problem to both the environment and human health causing a disruption of biological rhythms related not only to the visible spectrum, but also to other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Since the lamps emit across a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, all photobiological species may be exposed to another type of light pollution. By comparing five different lamps, the present study attempts to evaluate UV radiative fluxes relative to what humans and two species of insects perceive as sky glow level. We have analyzed three atmospheric situations: clear sky, overcast sky and evolving precipitable water content. One important finding suggests that when a constant illuminance of urban spaces has to be guaranteed the sky glow from the low pressure sodium lamps has the most significant effect to the visual perception of the insects tested. But having the fixed number of luminaires the situation changes and the low pressure sodium lamp would be the best choice for all three species. The sky glow effects can be interpreted correctly only if the lamp types and the required amount of scotopic luxes at the ground are taken into account simultaneously. If these two factors are combined properly, then the ecological consequences of sky glow can be partly reduced. The results of this research may be equally useful for lighting engineers, architects, biologists and researchers who are studying the effects of sky glow on humans and biodiversity.  
  Address ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovak Republic. lamphar@gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23441205; PMCID:PMC3575508 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 578  
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Author Bullough, J.D.; Donnell, E.T.; Rea, M.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title To illuminate or not to illuminate: roadway lighting as it affects traffic safety at intersections Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2013 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev  
  Volume 53 Issue Pages 65-77  
  Keywords Lighting; Accident Prevention/*methods; Accidents, Traffic/*prevention & control/psychology/statistics & numerical data; Cross-Sectional Studies; *Environment Design; Humans; *Lighting; Minnesota; Models, Statistical; Photoperiod; Psychomotor Performance; Regression Analysis; Safety/statistics & numerical data; Visual Perception  
  Abstract A two-pronged effort to quantify the impact of lighting on traffic safety is presented. In the statistical approach, the effects of lighting on crash frequency for different intersection types in Minnesota were assessed using count regression models. The models included many geometric and traffic control variables to estimate the association between lighting and nighttime and daytime crashes and the resulting night-to-day crash ratios. Overall, the presence of roadway intersection lighting was found to be associated with an approximately 12% lower night-to-day crash ratio than unlighted intersections. In the parallel analytical approach, visual performance analyses based on roadway intersection lighting practices in Minnesota were made for the same intersection types investigated in the statistical approach. The results of both approaches were convergent, suggesting that visual performance improvements from roadway lighting could serve as input for predicting improvements in crash frequency. A provisional transfer function allows transportation engineers to evaluate alternative lighting systems in the design phase so selections based on expected benefits and costs can be made.  
  Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 21 Union Street, Troy, NY 12180, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23377085 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 627  
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Author Summa, K.C.; Vitaterna, M.H.; Turek, F.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Environmental perturbation of the circadian clock disrupts pregnancy in the mouse Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2012 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 7 Issue 5 Pages e37668  
  Keywords Animals; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; *Environment; Female; Locomotion/physiology; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Photoperiod; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Outcome; Reproduction/*physiology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: The circadian clock has been linked to reproduction at many levels in mammals. Epidemiological studies of female shift workers have reported increased rates of reproductive abnormalities and adverse pregnancy outcomes, although whether the cause is circadian disruption or another factor associated with shift work is unknown. Here we test whether environmental disruption of circadian rhythms, using repeated shifts of the light:dark (LD) cycle, adversely affects reproductive success in mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Young adult female C57BL/6J (B6) mice were paired with B6 males until copulation was verified by visual identification of vaginal plug formation. Females were then randomly assigned to one of three groups: control, phase-delay or phase-advance. Controls remained on a constant 12-hr light:12-hr dark cycle, whereas phase-delayed and phase-advanced mice were subjected to 6-hr delays or advances in the LD cycle every 5-6 days, respectively. The number of copulations resulting in term pregnancies was determined. Control females had a full-term pregnancy success rate of 90% (11/12), which fell to 50% (9/18; p<0.1) in the phase-delay group and 22% (4/18; p<0.01) in the phase-advance group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Repeated shifting of the LD cycle, which disrupts endogenous circadian timekeeping, dramatically reduces pregnancy success in mice. Advances of the LD cycle have a greater negative impact on pregnancy outcomes and, in non-pregnant female mice, require longer for circadian re-entrainment, suggesting that the magnitude or duration of circadian misalignment may be related to the severity of the adverse impact on pregnancy. These results explicitly link disruptions of circadian entrainment to adverse pregnancy outcomes in mammals, which may have important implications for the reproductive health of female shift workers, women with circadian rhythm sleep disorders and/or women with disturbed circadian rhythms for other reasons.  
  Address Center for Sleep and Circadian Biology, Department of Neurobiology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, United States of America  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22649550; PMCID:PMC3359308 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 92  
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Author Lowden, A.; Akerstedt, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Assessment of a new dynamic light regimen in a nuclear power control room without windows on quickly rotating shiftworkers--effects on health, wakefulness, and circadian alignment: a pilot study Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2012 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int  
  Volume 29 Issue 5 Pages 641-649  
  Keywords Adaptation, Physiological; Adult; *Circadian Rhythm; Darkness/adverse effects; *Environment, Controlled; Female; Humans; *Light; Male; Melatonin/metabolism; Middle Aged; Photic Stimulation; Pilot Projects; Saliva/chemistry; Sleep/*physiology; *Wakefulness; *Work Schedule Tolerance  
  Abstract The aim of the study was to test whether a new dynamic light regime would improve alertness, sleep, and adaptation to rotating shiftwork. The illumination level in a control room without windows at a nuclear power station was ~200 lux (straight-forward horizontal gaze) using a weak yellow light of 200 lux, 3000 K (Philips Master TLD 36 W 830). New lighting equipment was installed in one area of the control room above the positions of the reactor operators. The new lights were shielded from the control group by a distance of >6 m, and the other operators worked at desks turned away from the new light. The new lights were designed to give three different light exposures: (i) white/blue strong light of 745 lux, 6000 K; (ii) weak yellow light of 650 lux, 4000 K; and (iii) yellow moderate light of 700 lux, 4000 K. In a crossover design, the normal and new light exposures were given during a sequence of three night shifts, two free days, two morning shifts, and one afternoon shift (NNN + MMA), with 7 wks between sessions. The operators consisted of two groups; seven reactor operators from seven work teams were at one time exposed to the new equipment and 16 other operators were used as controls. The study was conducted during winter with reduced opportunities of daylight exposure during work, after night work, or before morning work. Operators wore actigraphs, filled in a sleep/wake diary, including ratings of sleepiness on the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) every 2 h, and provided saliva samples for analysis of melatonin at work (every 2nd h during one night shift and first 3 h during one morning shift). Results from the wake/sleep diary showed the new light treatment increased alertness during the 2nd night shift (interaction group x light x time, p < .01). Time of waking was delayed in the light condition after the 3rd night shift (group x light, p < .05), but the amount of wake time during the sleep span increased after the 2nd night shift (p < .05), also showing a tendency to affect sleep efficiency (p < .10). Effects on circadian phase were difficult to establish given the small sample size and infrequent sampling of saliva melatonin. Nonetheless, it seems that appropriate dynamic light in rooms without windows during the dark Nordic season may promote alertness, sleep, and better adaptation to quickly rotating shiftwork.  
  Address Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. arne.lowden@stress.su.se  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22621361 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 148  
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