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Author Shimoda, M.; Honda, K.-ichiro
Title Insect reactions to light and its applications to pest management Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Applied Entomology and Zoology Abbreviated Journal Appl Entomol Zool
Volume 48 Issue (up) 4 Pages 413-421
Keywords ultraviolet; light; Integrated pest management; Artificial lighting; Photoreception; Phototaxis; Light-emitting diode; *Lighting
Abstract Insects are able to see ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Nocturnal insects are often attracted to light sources that emit large amounts of UV radiation, and devices that exploit this behavior, such as light traps for forecasting pest outbreaks, and electric insect killers, have been developed. Some diurnal species are attracted to yellow; yellow pan traps are used for conducting surveys for pest outbreaks and yellow sticky plates are used for pest control. Lamps that give off yellow illumination have been used effectively to control the activity of nocturnal moths and thus reduce damage to fruit, vegetables, and flowers. Covering cultivation facilities with film that filters out near-UV radiation reduces the invasion of pests such as whiteflies and thrips into the facilities, thus reducing damage. Reflective material placed on cultivated land can control the approach of flying insects such as aphids. Future development and use of new light sources such as light-emitting diodes is anticipated for promoting integrated pest management.
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ISSN 0003-6862 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 110
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Author Evans, J.A.; Elliott, J.A.; Gorman, M.R.
Title Dim nighttime illumination accelerates adjustment to timezone travel in an animal model Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol
Volume 19 Issue (up) 4 Pages R156-7
Keywords *Adaptation, Physiological; Animals; Behavior, Animal/physiology; Biological Clocks/*physiology; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Cricetinae; Humans; *Lighting; Mesocricetus; Mice; Motor Activity/physiology; Phodopus; *Photoperiod; Time Factors
Abstract Jetlag reflects a mismatch between local and circadian time following rapid timezone travel [1]. Appropriately timed bright light can shift human circadian rhythms but recovery is slow (e.g., 1-2 days per timezone). Most symptoms subside after resynchronization, but chronic jetlag may have enduring negative effects [2], including even accelerated mortality in mice [3]. Melatonin, prescription drugs, and/or exercise may help shift the clock but, like bright light, require complex schedules of application [1]. Thus, there is a need for more efficient and practical treatments for addressing jetlag. In contrast to bright daytime lighting, nighttime conditions have received scant attention. By incorporating more naturalistic nighttime lighting comparable in intensity to dim moonlight, we demonstrate that recovery after simulated jetlag is accelerated when nights are dimly lit rather than completely dark.
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ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:19243688 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 152
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Author Hale, J.D.; Davies, G.; Fairbrass, A.J.; Matthews, T.J.; Rogers, C.D.F.; Sadler, J.P.
Title Mapping lightscapes: spatial patterning of artificial lighting in an urban landscape Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 8 Issue (up) 5 Pages e61460
Keywords *Cities; England; Environmental Pollution; Geographic Mapping; Humans; Light; *Lighting; Photography; Urban Population; *Urbanization
Abstract Artificial lighting is strongly associated with urbanisation and is increasing in its extent, brightness and spectral range. Changes in urban lighting have both positive and negative effects on city performance, yet little is known about how its character and magnitude vary across the urban landscape. A major barrier to related research, planning and governance has been the lack of lighting data at the city extent, particularly at a fine spatial resolution. Our aims were therefore to capture such data using aerial night photography and to undertake a case study of urban lighting. We present the finest scale multi-spectral lighting dataset available for an entire city and explore how lighting metrics vary with built density and land-use. We found positive relationships between artificial lighting indicators and built density at coarse spatial scales, whilst at a local level lighting varied with land-use. Manufacturing and housing are the primary land-use zones responsible for the city's brightly lit areas, yet manufacturing sites are relatively rare within the city. Our data suggests that efforts to address light pollution should broaden their focus from residential street lighting to include security lighting within manufacturing areas.
Address School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, West Midlands, United Kingdom. j.hale@bham.ac.uk
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ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:23671566; PMCID:PMC3646000 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 209
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Author Kuhn, L.; Johansson, M.; Laike, T.; Goven, T.
Title Residents' perceptions following retrofitting of residential area outdoor lighting with LEDs Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology
Volume 45 Issue (up) 5 Pages 568-584
Keywords *Lighting; outdoor lighting; LED; light emitting diode; lighting levels; public opinion
Abstract The use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) in outdoor lighting has energy-saving potential, but users’ responses to this light source are largely unknown. An intervention study in two residential areas compared conventional lighting installations (high pressure sodium in Area 1 and high pressure mercury in Area 2) to a retrofitted LED-alternative regarding residents’ perceptions of quality of light, visual accessibility and danger. Moreover, energy use was calculated. Residents’ (N = 60) visual accessibility improved and perceived danger remained low in both areas after retrofitting. In Area 2 the perceived quality of light increased, whereas in Area 1 the results were mixed. The retrofitted application reduced energy use by 41–76% and might be a feasible alternative to conventional outdoor lighting in relatively safe areas.
Address Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
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ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 280
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Author Vetter, C.; Juda, M.; Lang, D.; Wojtysiak, A.; Roenneberg, T.
Title Blue-enriched office light competes with natural light as a zeitgeber Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health Abbreviated Journal Scand J Work Environ Health
Volume 37 Issue (up) 5 Pages 437-445
Keywords *Circadian Rhythm; *Color; Humans; *Lighting; *Occupational Health; Sleep; Wakefulness; blue light; circadian disruption; Circadian rhythm; sleep
Abstract OBJECTIVES: Circadian regulation of human physiology and behavior (eg, body temperature or sleep-timing), depends on the “zeitgeber” light that synchronizes them to the 24-hour day. This study investigated the effect of changing light temperature at the workplace from 4000 Kelvin (K) to 8000 K on sleep-wake and activity-rest behavior. METHODS: An experimental group (N=27) that experienced the light change was compared with a non-intervention group (N=27) that remained in the 4000 K environment throughout the 5-week study period (14 January to 17 February). Sleep logs and actimetry continuously assessed sleep-wake behavior and activity patterns. RESULTS: Over the study period, the timing of sleep and activity on free days steadily advanced parallel to the seasonal progression of sunrise in the non-intervention group. In contrast, the temporal pattern of sleep and activity in the experimental group remained associated with the constant onset of work. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that artificial blue-enriched light competes with natural light as a zeitgeber. While subjects working under the warmer light (4000 K) appear to entrain (or synchronize) to natural dawn, the subjects who were exposed to blue-enriched (8000 K) light appear to entrain to office hours. The results confirm that light is the dominant zeitgeber for the human clock and that its efficacy depends on spectral composition. The results also indicate that blue-enriched artificial light is a potent zeitgeber that has to be used with diligence.
Address Institute for Medical Psychology, Centre of Chronobiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat, Munich, Germany
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ISSN 0355-3140 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:21246176 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 350
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