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Author Shimoda, M.; Honda, K.-ichiro
Title Insect reactions to light and its applications to pest management Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Applied Entomology and Zoology Abbreviated Journal Appl Entomol Zool
Volume 48 Issue 4 Pages 413-421
Keywords ultraviolet; light; Integrated pest management; Artificial lighting; Photoreception; Phototaxis; Light-emitting diode; *Lighting
Abstract Insects are able to see ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Nocturnal insects are often attracted to light sources that emit large amounts of UV radiation, and devices that exploit this behavior, such as light traps for forecasting pest outbreaks, and electric insect killers, have been developed. Some diurnal species are attracted to yellow; yellow pan traps are used for conducting surveys for pest outbreaks and yellow sticky plates are used for pest control. Lamps that give off yellow illumination have been used effectively to control the activity of nocturnal moths and thus reduce damage to fruit, vegetables, and flowers. Covering cultivation facilities with film that filters out near-UV radiation reduces the invasion of pests such as whiteflies and thrips into the facilities, thus reducing damage. Reflective material placed on cultivated land can control the approach of flying insects such as aphids. Future development and use of new light sources such as light-emitting diodes is anticipated for promoting integrated pest management.
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ISSN 0003-6862 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 110
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Author Ho, C.Y.; Lin, H.T.; Huang, K.Y.
Title A Study on Energy Saving and Light Pollution of LED Advertising Signs Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Applied Mechanics and Materials Abbreviated Journal Amm
Volume 121-126 Issue Pages 2979-2984
Keywords Advertising Sign; LED; Light Trespass; Luminance Limit; Saving Energy; Vertical Illuminance; *Lighting
Abstract Lighting advertising signs not only play an important role in outdoor lighting environment in Taiwan, but also become the main factor of energy consumption in urban areas at night. Light-emitting diode (LED) has been gradually used in advertising signs due to its advantages. However, in order to be conspicuous and legible in the daytime, signs that are excessively bright may result in considerable light pollution and energy waste at nighttime. Therefore, this research aims to measure the luminance of LED signs and traditional internally lighted signs, and analyze the light trespass from each signage. Based on the research results, the energy consumption from a LED full color screen is 12 times more than a traditional internally lighted sign per day. Statistically, all kinds of LED signs are much higher than traditional internally lighted signs in the percentage of excessive brightness and average luminance value. As for the light trespass, since the vertical illuminance on facade facing the signs increases with the increase of the sign area or the decrease of the distance between the sign and the facade, the vertical illuminance on facade facing the signs would exceed the limit of CIE even if the luminance of the signs achieves the standard of CIE in terms of the general conditions in Taiwan. This happens to LED full color screens in particular and thus results in considerable obtrusive light. To sum up, in order to reduce unnecessary energy consumption and improve the nighttime lighting quality for outdoor environment, this research recommends the luminance limitation for light dimming of LED advertising signs should refer to the zoning, time period, and sign area.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 1662-7482 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 126
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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Hänel, A.; Hölker, F.
Title Redefining efficiency for outdoor lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Energy & Environmental Science Abbreviated Journal Energy Environ. Sci.
Volume 7 Issue 6 Pages 1806
Keywords *Lighting; outdoor lighting; luminous efficiency; lighting standards; public policy; illuminance; street lighting
Abstract Improvements in the luminous efficiency of outdoor lamps might not result in energy savings or reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. The reason for this is a rebound effect: when light becomes cheaper, many users will increase illumination, and some previously unlit areas may become lit. We present three policy recommendations that work together to guarantee major energy reductions in street lighting systems. First, taking advantage of new technologies to use light only when and where it is needed. Second, defining maximum permitted illuminances for roadway lighting. Third, defining street lighting system efficiency in terms of kilowatt hours per kilometer per year. Adoption of these policies would not only save energy, but would greatly reduce the amount of light pollution produced by cities. The goal of lighting policy should be to provide the light needed for any given task while minimizing both the energy use and negative environmental side effects of the light.
Address Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Germany
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ISSN 1754-5692 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 244
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Author Kuhn, L.; Johansson, M.; Laike, T.; Goven, T.
Title Residents' perceptions following retrofitting of residential area outdoor lighting with LEDs Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology
Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 568-584
Keywords *Lighting; outdoor lighting; LED; light emitting diode; lighting levels; public opinion
Abstract The use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) in outdoor lighting has energy-saving potential, but users’ responses to this light source are largely unknown. An intervention study in two residential areas compared conventional lighting installations (high pressure sodium in Area 1 and high pressure mercury in Area 2) to a retrofitted LED-alternative regarding residents’ perceptions of quality of light, visual accessibility and danger. Moreover, energy use was calculated. Residents’ (N = 60) visual accessibility improved and perceived danger remained low in both areas after retrofitting. In Area 2 the perceived quality of light increased, whereas in Area 1 the results were mixed. The retrofitted application reduced energy use by 41–76% and might be a feasible alternative to conventional outdoor lighting in relatively safe areas.
Address Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
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ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 280
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Author Fonken, L.K.; Aubrecht, T.G.; Melendez-Fernandez, O.H.; Weil, Z.M.; Nelson, R.J.
Title Dim light at night disrupts molecular circadian rhythms and increases body weight Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms
Volume 28 Issue 4 Pages 262-271
Keywords Animals; Blood Glucose/metabolism; Body Weight/*physiology; CLOCK Proteins/biosynthesis/genetics; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Corticosterone/metabolism; Feeding Behavior/physiology; Immunohistochemistry; Light; *Lighting; Male; Mice; Motor Activity; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Suprachiasmatic Nucleus/metabolism/physiology; clock genes; feeding rhythm; light pollution; obesity
Abstract With the exception of high latitudes, life has evolved under bright days and dark nights. Most organisms have developed endogenously driven circadian rhythms that are synchronized to this daily light/dark cycle. In recent years, humans have shifted away from the naturally occurring solar light cycle in favor of artificial and sometimes irregular light schedules produced by electric lighting. Exposure to unnatural light cycles is increasingly associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome; however, the means by which environmental lighting alters metabolism are poorly understood. Thus, we exposed mice to dim light at night and investigated changes in the circadian system and metabolism. Here we report that exposure to ecologically relevant levels of dim (5 lux) light at night altered core circadian clock rhythms in the hypothalamus at both the gene and protein level. Circadian rhythms in clock expression persisted during light at night; however, the amplitude of Per1 and Per2 rhythms was attenuated in the hypothalamus. Circadian oscillations were also altered in peripheral tissues critical for metabolic regulation. Exposure to dimly illuminated, as compared to dark, nights decreased the rhythmic expression in all but one of the core circadian clock genes assessed in the liver. Additionally, mice exposed to dim light at night attenuated Rev-Erb expression in the liver and adipose tissue. Changes in the circadian clock were associated with temporal alterations in feeding behavior and increased weight gain. These results are significant because they provide evidence that mild changes in environmental lighting can alter circadian and metabolic function. Detailed analysis of temporal changes induced by nighttime light exposure may provide insight into the onset and progression of obesity and metabolic syndrome, as well as other disorders involving sleep and circadian rhythm disruption.
Address Department of Neuroscience and Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. fonken.1@osu.edu
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Language (up) English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:23929553; PMCID:PMC4033305 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 28
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