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Author Stevens, R.G.; Blask, D.E.; Brainard, G.C.; Hansen, J.; Lockley, S.W.; Provencio, I.; Rea, M.S.; Reinlib, L.
Title Meeting report: the role of environmental lighting and circadian disruption in cancer and other diseases Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Environmental Health Perspectives Abbreviated Journal Environ Health Perspect
Volume 115 Issue 9 Pages 1357-1362
Keywords Human Health; Animals; *Circadian Rhythm; Environmental Exposure; Humans; *Lighting/adverse effects; *Neoplasms/etiology; Research; breast cancer; circadian rhythms; clock genes; lighting; melatonin; phototransduction; pineal gland
Abstract Light, including artificial light, has a range of effects on human physiology and behavior and can therefore alter human physiology when inappropriately timed. One example of potential light-induced disruption is the effect of light on circadian organization, including the production of several hormone rhythms. Changes in light-dark exposure (e.g., by nonday occupation or transmeridian travel) shift the timing of the circadian system such that internal rhythms can become desynchronized from both the external environment and internally with each other, impairing our ability to sleep and wake at the appropriate times and compromising physiologic and metabolic processes. Light can also have direct acute effects on neuroendocrine systems, for example, in suppressing melatonin synthesis or elevating cortisol production that may have untoward long-term consequences. For these reasons, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences convened a workshop of a diverse group of scientists to consider how best to conduct research on possible connections between lighting and health. According to the participants in the workshop, there are three broad areas of research effort that need to be addressed. First are the basic biophysical and molecular genetic mechanisms for phototransduction for circadian, neuroendocrine, and neurobehavioral regulation. Second are the possible physiologic consequences of disrupting these circadian regulatory processes such as on hormone production, particularly melatonin, and normal and neoplastic tissue growth dynamics. Third are effects of light-induced physiologic disruption on disease occurrence and prognosis, and how prevention and treatment could be improved by application of this knowledge.
Address Department of Community Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut 06030-6325, USA. bugs@uchc.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0091-6765 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) PMID:17805428; PMCID:PMC1964886 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 821
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Author Monsere, C.M.; Fischer, E.L.
Title Safety effects of reducing freeway illumination for energy conservation Type Journal Article
Year 2008 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev
Volume 40 Issue 5 Pages 1773-1780
Keywords Lighting; Accidents, Traffic/*statistics & numerical data; *Automobile Driving; *Conservation of Energy Resources; Environment Design; Humans; *Lighting; Models, Statistical; Oregon; Safety; Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology
Abstract The addition of illumination where none was present is generally believed to have a positive effect on motor vehicle safety; reducing the frequency, as well as the severity of crashes. The operational cost of illumination, however, can make it a candidate for conservation during periods of high energy costs. In response to a forecasted energy shortage, the Oregon Department of Transportation selectively reduced illumination on interstate highways as part of an energy-saving effort. The reductions occurred at 44 interchanges and along 5.5 miles of interstate highway. This paper presents the results of a crash-based analysis of the changes in safety performance using an empirical-Bayes observational methodology. The study found an increase in reported crashes where the lineal lighting was reduced both in total crashes (28.95%, P=0.05) and injury night crashes (39.21%, P=0.07). Where full interchange lighting was reduced to partial lighting, a 2.46% increase (P=0.007) in total night crashes was observed. Injury night crashes, however, decreased by 12.16% (P<0.001) though day injury crashes also decreased at these locations. Unexpectedly, for interchanges where illumination was reduced from partial plus to partial, a 35.24% decrease (P<0.001) in total crashes and 39.98 (P<0.001) decrease in injury night crashes was found, though again, day crashes also decreased.
Address Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Portland State University, P.O. Box 751, Portland, OR 97207-0751, USA. monsere@pdx.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) PMID:18760107 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 643
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Author Wanvik, P.O.
Title Effects of road lighting: an analysis based on Dutch accident statistics 1987-2006 Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev
Volume 41 Issue 1 Pages 123-128
Keywords Accidents, Traffic/*statistics & numerical data; Automobile Driving/*statistics & numerical data; Confidence Intervals; Cross-Sectional Studies; Humans; *Lighting; Netherlands; Odds Ratio; Risk Factors; Safety; *Visual Fields
Abstract This study estimates the safety effect of road lighting on accidents in darkness on Dutch roads, using data from an interactive database containing 763,000 injury accidents and 3.3 million property damage accidents covering the period 1987-2006. Two estimators of effect are used, and the results are combined by applying techniques of meta-analysis. Injury accidents are reduced by 50%. This effect is larger than the effects found in most of the earlier studies. The effect on fatal accidents is slightly larger than the effect on injury accidents. The effect during twilight is about 2/3 of the effect in darkness. The effect of road lighting is significantly smaller during adverse weather and road surface conditions than during fine conditions. The effects on pedestrian, bicycle and moped accidents are significantly larger than the effects on automobile and motorcycle accidents. The risk of injury accidents was found to increase in darkness. The average increase in risk was estimated to 17% on lit rural roads and 145% on unlit rural roads. The average increase in risk during rainy conditions is about 50% on lit rural roads and about 190% on unlit rural roads. The average increase in risk with respect to pedestrian accidents is about 140% on lit rural roads and about 360% on unlit rural roads.
Address Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Region South, Serviceboks 723, 4808 Arendal, Norway. per.wanvik@vegvesen.no
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) PMID:19114146 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 250
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Author Evans, J.A.; Elliott, J.A.; Gorman, M.R.
Title Dim nighttime illumination accelerates adjustment to timezone travel in an animal model Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol
Volume 19 Issue 4 Pages R156-7
Keywords *Adaptation, Physiological; Animals; Behavior, Animal/physiology; Biological Clocks/*physiology; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Cricetinae; Humans; *Lighting; Mesocricetus; Mice; Motor Activity/physiology; Phodopus; *Photoperiod; Time Factors
Abstract Jetlag reflects a mismatch between local and circadian time following rapid timezone travel [1]. Appropriately timed bright light can shift human circadian rhythms but recovery is slow (e.g., 1-2 days per timezone). Most symptoms subside after resynchronization, but chronic jetlag may have enduring negative effects [2], including even accelerated mortality in mice [3]. Melatonin, prescription drugs, and/or exercise may help shift the clock but, like bright light, require complex schedules of application [1]. Thus, there is a need for more efficient and practical treatments for addressing jetlag. In contrast to bright daytime lighting, nighttime conditions have received scant attention. By incorporating more naturalistic nighttime lighting comparable in intensity to dim moonlight, we demonstrate that recovery after simulated jetlag is accelerated when nights are dimly lit rather than completely dark.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) PMID:19243688 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 152
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Author Bennett, S.; Alpert, M.; Kubulins, V.; Hansler, R.L.
Title Use of modified spectacles and light bulbs to block blue light at night may prevent postpartum depression Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Medical Hypotheses Abbreviated Journal Med Hypotheses
Volume 73 Issue 2 Pages 251-253
Keywords Depression, Postpartum/*prevention & control; *Eyeglasses; Female; Humans; *Lighting; blue light; light therapy; blue blocker
Abstract In 2001 it was discovered that exposing the eyes to light in the blue end of the visible spectrum suppresses the production of the sleep hormone, melatonin. New mothers need to get up during the night to care for their babies. This is the time when melatonin is normally flowing. Exposing their eyes to light can cut off the flow. It may also reset their circadian (internal) clock. On subsequent nights the melatonin may not begin flowing at the normal time making it difficult to fall asleep. Over time, disruption of the circadian rhythm plus sleep deprivation may result in depression. Women suffering postpartum depression were enrolled in a small clinical trial. Some were provided with glasses and light bulbs that block blue light. Others were equipped with glasses and light bulbs that looked colored but did not block the rays causing melatonin suppression. Those with the “real glasses” recovered somewhat more quickly than those with the placebo glasses and light bulbs. The hypothesis that should be tested in large scale clinical trials is that the risk of postpartum depression can be reduced when a new mother avoids exposing her eyes to blue light when she gets up at night to care for her baby. In the meantime, all new mothers may benefit from using glasses and light bulbs that block blue light when getting up at night to care for their babies.
Address Postpartum Support, International P.O. Box 60931, Santa Barbara, CA 93160, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0306-9877 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) PMID:19329259 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 296
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