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Author Wanvik, P.O.
Title Effects of road lighting: an analysis based on Dutch accident statistics 1987-2006 Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication (up) Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev
Volume 41 Issue 1 Pages 123-128
Keywords Accidents, Traffic/*statistics & numerical data; Automobile Driving/*statistics & numerical data; Confidence Intervals; Cross-Sectional Studies; Humans; *Lighting; Netherlands; Odds Ratio; Risk Factors; Safety; *Visual Fields
Abstract This study estimates the safety effect of road lighting on accidents in darkness on Dutch roads, using data from an interactive database containing 763,000 injury accidents and 3.3 million property damage accidents covering the period 1987-2006. Two estimators of effect are used, and the results are combined by applying techniques of meta-analysis. Injury accidents are reduced by 50%. This effect is larger than the effects found in most of the earlier studies. The effect on fatal accidents is slightly larger than the effect on injury accidents. The effect during twilight is about 2/3 of the effect in darkness. The effect of road lighting is significantly smaller during adverse weather and road surface conditions than during fine conditions. The effects on pedestrian, bicycle and moped accidents are significantly larger than the effects on automobile and motorcycle accidents. The risk of injury accidents was found to increase in darkness. The average increase in risk was estimated to 17% on lit rural roads and 145% on unlit rural roads. The average increase in risk during rainy conditions is about 50% on lit rural roads and about 190% on unlit rural roads. The average increase in risk with respect to pedestrian accidents is about 140% on lit rural roads and about 360% on unlit rural roads.
Address Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Region South, Serviceboks 723, 4808 Arendal, Norway. per.wanvik@vegvesen.no
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ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:19114146 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 250
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Author Bullough, J.D.; Donnell, E.T.; Rea, M.S.
Title To illuminate or not to illuminate: roadway lighting as it affects traffic safety at intersections Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication (up) Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev
Volume 53 Issue Pages 65-77
Keywords Lighting; Accident Prevention/*methods; Accidents, Traffic/*prevention & control/psychology/statistics & numerical data; Cross-Sectional Studies; *Environment Design; Humans; *Lighting; Minnesota; Models, Statistical; Photoperiod; Psychomotor Performance; Regression Analysis; Safety/statistics & numerical data; Visual Perception
Abstract A two-pronged effort to quantify the impact of lighting on traffic safety is presented. In the statistical approach, the effects of lighting on crash frequency for different intersection types in Minnesota were assessed using count regression models. The models included many geometric and traffic control variables to estimate the association between lighting and nighttime and daytime crashes and the resulting night-to-day crash ratios. Overall, the presence of roadway intersection lighting was found to be associated with an approximately 12% lower night-to-day crash ratio than unlighted intersections. In the parallel analytical approach, visual performance analyses based on roadway intersection lighting practices in Minnesota were made for the same intersection types investigated in the statistical approach. The results of both approaches were convergent, suggesting that visual performance improvements from roadway lighting could serve as input for predicting improvements in crash frequency. A provisional transfer function allows transportation engineers to evaluate alternative lighting systems in the design phase so selections based on expected benefits and costs can be made.
Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 21 Union Street, Troy, NY 12180, USA
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23377085 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 627
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Author Monsere, C.M.; Fischer, E.L.
Title Safety effects of reducing freeway illumination for energy conservation Type Journal Article
Year 2008 Publication (up) Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev
Volume 40 Issue 5 Pages 1773-1780
Keywords Lighting; Accidents, Traffic/*statistics & numerical data; *Automobile Driving; *Conservation of Energy Resources; Environment Design; Humans; *Lighting; Models, Statistical; Oregon; Safety; Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology
Abstract The addition of illumination where none was present is generally believed to have a positive effect on motor vehicle safety; reducing the frequency, as well as the severity of crashes. The operational cost of illumination, however, can make it a candidate for conservation during periods of high energy costs. In response to a forecasted energy shortage, the Oregon Department of Transportation selectively reduced illumination on interstate highways as part of an energy-saving effort. The reductions occurred at 44 interchanges and along 5.5 miles of interstate highway. This paper presents the results of a crash-based analysis of the changes in safety performance using an empirical-Bayes observational methodology. The study found an increase in reported crashes where the lineal lighting was reduced both in total crashes (28.95%, P=0.05) and injury night crashes (39.21%, P=0.07). Where full interchange lighting was reduced to partial lighting, a 2.46% increase (P=0.007) in total night crashes was observed. Injury night crashes, however, decreased by 12.16% (P<0.001) though day injury crashes also decreased at these locations. Unexpectedly, for interchanges where illumination was reduced from partial plus to partial, a 35.24% decrease (P<0.001) in total crashes and 39.98 (P<0.001) decrease in injury night crashes was found, though again, day crashes also decreased.
Address Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Portland State University, P.O. Box 751, Portland, OR 97207-0751, USA. monsere@pdx.edu
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:18760107 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 643
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Author Shimoda, M.; Honda, K.-ichiro
Title Insect reactions to light and its applications to pest management Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication (up) Applied Entomology and Zoology Abbreviated Journal Appl Entomol Zool
Volume 48 Issue 4 Pages 413-421
Keywords ultraviolet; light; Integrated pest management; Artificial lighting; Photoreception; Phototaxis; Light-emitting diode; *Lighting
Abstract Insects are able to see ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Nocturnal insects are often attracted to light sources that emit large amounts of UV radiation, and devices that exploit this behavior, such as light traps for forecasting pest outbreaks, and electric insect killers, have been developed. Some diurnal species are attracted to yellow; yellow pan traps are used for conducting surveys for pest outbreaks and yellow sticky plates are used for pest control. Lamps that give off yellow illumination have been used effectively to control the activity of nocturnal moths and thus reduce damage to fruit, vegetables, and flowers. Covering cultivation facilities with film that filters out near-UV radiation reduces the invasion of pests such as whiteflies and thrips into the facilities, thus reducing damage. Reflective material placed on cultivated land can control the approach of flying insects such as aphids. Future development and use of new light sources such as light-emitting diodes is anticipated for promoting integrated pest management.
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0003-6862 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 110
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Author Ho, C.Y.; Lin, H.T.; Huang, K.Y.
Title A Study on Energy Saving and Light Pollution of LED Advertising Signs Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication (up) Applied Mechanics and Materials Abbreviated Journal Amm
Volume 121-126 Issue Pages 2979-2984
Keywords Advertising Sign; LED; Light Trespass; Luminance Limit; Saving Energy; Vertical Illuminance; *Lighting
Abstract Lighting advertising signs not only play an important role in outdoor lighting environment in Taiwan, but also become the main factor of energy consumption in urban areas at night. Light-emitting diode (LED) has been gradually used in advertising signs due to its advantages. However, in order to be conspicuous and legible in the daytime, signs that are excessively bright may result in considerable light pollution and energy waste at nighttime. Therefore, this research aims to measure the luminance of LED signs and traditional internally lighted signs, and analyze the light trespass from each signage. Based on the research results, the energy consumption from a LED full color screen is 12 times more than a traditional internally lighted sign per day. Statistically, all kinds of LED signs are much higher than traditional internally lighted signs in the percentage of excessive brightness and average luminance value. As for the light trespass, since the vertical illuminance on facade facing the signs increases with the increase of the sign area or the decrease of the distance between the sign and the facade, the vertical illuminance on facade facing the signs would exceed the limit of CIE even if the luminance of the signs achieves the standard of CIE in terms of the general conditions in Taiwan. This happens to LED full color screens in particular and thus results in considerable obtrusive light. To sum up, in order to reduce unnecessary energy consumption and improve the nighttime lighting quality for outdoor environment, this research recommends the luminance limitation for light dimming of LED advertising signs should refer to the zoning, time period, and sign area.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 1662-7482 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 126
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