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Author Bharti, N.; Tatem, A.J.; Ferrari, M.J.; Grais, R.F.; Djibo, A.; Grenfell, B.T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Explaining seasonal fluctuations of measles in Niger using nighttime lights imagery Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Science (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 334 Issue 6061 Pages 1424-1427  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Human Health; Cities; Emigration and Immigration; Epidemics; *Epidemiologic Methods; Humans; Light; Measles/*epidemiology/transmission; Niger/epidemiology; *Population Density; Remote Sensing Technology; *Seasons; Spacecraft  
  Abstract Measles epidemics in West Africa cause a significant proportion of vaccine-preventable childhood mortality. Epidemics are strongly seasonal, but the drivers of these fluctuations are poorly understood, which limits the predictability of outbreaks and the dynamic response to immunization. We show that measles seasonality can be explained by spatiotemporal changes in population density, which we measure by quantifying anthropogenic light from satellite imagery. We find that measles transmission and population density are highly correlated for three cities in Niger. With dynamic epidemic models, we demonstrate that measures of population density are essential for predicting epidemic progression at the city level and improving intervention strategies. In addition to epidemiological applications, the ability to measure fine-scale changes in population density has implications for public health, crisis management, and economic development.  
  Address Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA. nbharti@princeton.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0036-8075 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22158822; PMCID:PMC3891598 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2770  
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