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Author (up) Cabrera-Cruz, S.A.; Smolinsky, J.A.; McCarthy, K.P.; Buler, J.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Urban areas affect flight altitudes of nocturnally migrating birds Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication The Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol  
  Volume 88 Issue 12 Pages 1873-1887  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Animals; Aeroecology; bird migration; flight altitude; light pollution; radar; urbanization  
  Abstract 1.Urban areas affect terrestrial ecological processes and local weather, but we know little about their effect on aerial ecological processes. 2.Here, we identify urban from non-urban areas based on the intensity of artificial light at night (ALAN) in the landscape, and, along with weather covariates, evaluate the effect of urbanization on flight altitudes of nocturnally migrating birds. 3.Birds are attracted to ALAN, hence we predicted that altitudes would be lower over urban than over non-urban areas. However, other factors associated with urbanization may also affect flight altitudes. For example, surface temperature and terrain roughness are higher in urban areas, increasing air turbulence, height of the boundary layer, and affecting local winds. 4.We used data from nine weather surveillance radars in the eastern US to estimate altitudes at five quantiles of the vertical distribution of birds migrating at night over urban and non-urban areas during five consecutive spring and autumn migration seasons. We fit generalized linear mixed models by season for each of the five quantiles of bird flight altitude and their differences between urban and non-urban areas. 5.After controlling for other environmental variables and contrary to our prediction, we found that birds generally fly higher over urban areas compared to rural areas in spring, and marginally higher at the mid layers of the vertical distribution in autumn. We also identified a small interaction effect between urbanization and crosswind speed, and between urbanization and surface air temperature, on flight altitudes. We also found that the difference in flight altitudes of nocturnally migrating birds between urban and non-urban areas varied among radars and seasons, but were consistently higher over urban areas throughout the years sampled. 6.Our results suggest that the effects of urbanization on wildlife extend into the aerosphere, and are complex, stressing the need of understanding the influence of anthropogenic factors on airspace habitat. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.  
  Address Department of Entomology and Wildlife Ecology, University of Delaware, Delaware, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8790 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31330569 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2604  
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Author (up) Kunz, T.H.; Gauthreaux, S.A.J.; Hristov, N.I.; Horn, J.W.; Jones, G.; Kalko, E.K.V.; Larkin, R.P.; McCracken, G.F.; Swartz, S.M.; Srygley, R.B.; Dudley, R.; Westbrook, J.K.; Wikelski, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Aeroecology: probing and modeling the aerosphere Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Integrative and Comparative Biology Abbreviated Journal Integr Comp Biol  
  Volume 48 Issue 1 Pages 1-11  
  Keywords aeroecology; light; biology  
  Abstract Aeroecology is a discipline that embraces and integrates the domains of atmospheric science, ecology, earth science, geography, computer science, computational biology, and engineering. The unifying concept that underlies this emerging discipline is its focus on the planetary boundary layer, or aerosphere, and the myriad of organisms that, in large part, depend upon this environment for their existence. The aerosphere influences both daily and seasonal movements of organisms, and its effects have both short- and long-term consequences for species that use this environment. The biotic interactions and physical conditions in the aerosphere represent important selection pressures that influence traits such as size and shape of organisms, which in turn facilitate both passive and active displacements. The aerosphere also influences the evolution of behavioral, sensory, metabolic, and respiratory functions of organisms in a myriad of ways. In contrast to organisms that depend strictly on terrestrial or aquatic existence, those that routinely use the aerosphere are almost immediately influenced by changing atmospheric conditions (e.g., winds, air density, precipitation, air temperature), sunlight, polarized light, moon light, and geomagnetic and gravitational forces. The aerosphere has direct and indirect effects on organisms, which often are more strongly influenced than those that spend significant amounts of time on land or in water. Future advances in aeroecology will be made when research conducted by biologists is more fully integrated across temporal and spatial scales in concert with advances made by atmospheric scientists and mathematical modelers. Ultimately, understanding how organisms such as arthropods, birds, and bats aloft are influenced by a dynamic aerosphere will be of importance for assessing, and maintaining ecosystem health, human health, and biodiversity.  
  Address *Center for Ecology and Conservation Biology, Department of Biology, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA; School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG, UK; Department of Experimental Ecology, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069, Ulm, Germany; Illinois Natural History Survey, 607 East Peabody Drive, Champaign, IL 61820, USA; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1610, USA; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA; **USDA-ARS, 1500 N. Central Avenue, Sidney, MT 59270, USA; Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; USDA-ARS, 2771 F&B Road, College Station, TX 77845, USA and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton NJ 08544, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1540-7063 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21669768 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 19  
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Author (up) Kyba, C.C.M.; Ruhtz, T.; Fischer, J.; Hölker, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Lunar skylight polarization signal polluted by urban lighting Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres Abbreviated Journal J. Geophys. Res.  
  Volume 116 Issue D24 Pages  
  Keywords aeroecology; ecological light pollution; light pollution; moonlight; nocturnal navigation; polarized light  
  Abstract On clear moonlit nights, a band of highly polarized light stretches across the sky at a 90 degree angle from the moon, and it was recently demonstrated that nocturnal organisms are able to navigate based on it. Urban skyglow is believed to be almost unpolarized, and is therefore expected to dilute this unique partially linearly polarized signal. We found that urban skyglow has a greater than expected degree of linear polarization (p = 8.6 ± 0.3%), and confirmed that its presence diminishes the natural lunar polarization signal. We also observed that the degree of linear polarization can be reduced as the moon rises, due to the misalignment between the polarization angles of the skyglow and scattered moonlight. Under near ideal observing conditions, we found that the lunar polarization signal was clearly visible (p = 29.2 ± 0.8%) at a site with minimal light pollution 28 km from Berlin's center, but was reduced (p = 11.3 ± 0.3%) within the city itself. Daytime measurements indicate that without skyglow pwould likely be in excess of 50%. These results indicate that nocturnal animal navigation systems based on perceiving polarized scattered moonlight likely fail to operate properly in highly light-polluted areas, and that future light pollution models must take polarization into account.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0148-0227 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 21  
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