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Author (up) Abay, K.A.; Amare, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night light intensity and women's body weight: Evidence from Nigeria Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Economics and Human Biology Abbreviated Journal Econ Hum Biol  
  Volume 31 Issue Pages 238-248  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Human Health; Adolescent; Adult; Body Mass Index; *Body Weight; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; Lighting/*statistics & numerical data; Middle Aged; Nigeria/epidemiology; Obesity/epidemiology; Overweight/*epidemiology; Prevalence; *Urbanization; Young Adult; *Bmi; *Nigeria; *Night light; *Obesity; *Overweight; *Urbanization  
  Abstract The prevalence of overweight and obesity are increasing in many African countries and hence becoming regional public health challenges. We employ satellite-based night light intensity data as a proxy for urbanization to investigate the relationship between urbanization and women's body weight. We use two rounds of the Demographic and Health Survey data from Nigeria. We employ both nonparametric and parametric estimation approaches that exploit both the cross-sectional and longitudinal variations in night light intensities. Our empirical analysis reveals nonlinear relationships between night light intensity and women's body weight measures. Doubling the sample's average level of night light intensity is associated with up to a ten percentage point increase in the probability of overweight. However, despite the generally positive relationship between night light intensity and women's body weight, the strength of the relationship varies across the assorted stages of night light intensity. Early stages of night light intensity are not significantly associated with women's body weight, while higher stages of nightlight intensities are associated with higher rates of overweight and obesity. Given that night lights are strong predictors of urbanization and related economic activities, our results hint at nonlinear relationships between various stages of urbanization and women's body weight.  
  Address International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), USA. Electronic address: M.Amare@cgiar.org  
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  ISSN 1570-677X ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:30312904 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2714  
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Author (up) Ashkenazi, I. E.; Reinberg, A,; Bicakova-Rocher, A.; Ticher, A. url  openurl
  Title The genetic background of individual variations of circadian-rhythm periods in healthy human adults. Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication American Journal of Human Genetics Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 52 Issue 6 Pages 1250–1259  
  Keywords Human Health; Adult; Body Temperature; Bronchi; Bronchi: physiology; Circadian Rhythm; Circadian Rhythm: genetics; Female; Genetic Variation; Hand; Hand: physiology; Heart Rate; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Sex Factors; Sleep  
  Abstract As a group phenomenon, human variables exhibit a rhythm with a period (tau) equal to 24 h. However, healthy human adults may differ from one another with regard to the persistence of the 24-h periods of a set of variables' rhythms within a given individual. Such an internal desynchronization (or individual circadian dyschronism) was documented during isolation experiments without time cues, both in the present study involving 78 male shift workers and in 20 males and 19 females living in a natural setting. Circadian rhythms of sleep-wake cycles, oral temperature, grip strength of both hands, and heart rate were recorded, and power-spectra analyses of individual time series of about 15 days were used to quantify the rhythm period of each variable. The period of the sleep-wake cycle seldom differed from 24 h, while rhythm periods of the other variables exhibited a trimodal distribution (tau = 24 h, tau > 24 h, tau < 24 h). Among the temperature rhythm periods which were either < 24 h or > 24 h, none was detected between 23.2 and 24 h or between 24 and 24.8 h. Furthermore, the deviations from the 24-h period were predominantly grouped in multiples of +/- 0.8 h. Similar results were obtained when the rhythm periods of hand grip strength were analyzed (for each hand separately). In addition, the distribution of grip strength rhythm periods of the left hand exhibited a gender-related difference. These results suggested the presence of genetically controlled variability. Consequently, the distribution pattern of the periods was analyzed to elucidate its compatibility with a genetic control consisting of either a two-allele system, a multiple-allele system, or a polygenic system. The analysis resulted in structuring a model which integrates the function of a constitutive (essential) gene which produces the exact 24-h period (the Dian domain) with a set of (inducible) polygenes, the alleles of which, contribute identical time entities to the period. The time entities which affected the rhythm periods of the variables examined were in the magnitude of +/- 0.8 h. Such an assembly of genes may create periods ranging from 20 to 28 h (the Circadian domain). The model was termed by us “The Dian-Circadian Model.” This model can also be used to explain the beat phenomena in biological rhythms, the presence of 7-d and 30-d periods, and interindividual differences in sensitivity of rhythm characteristics (phase shifts, synchronization, etc.) to external (and environmental) factors.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 582  
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Author (up) Bauer, S.E.; Wagner, S.E.; Burch, J.; Bayakly, R.; Vena, J.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A case-referent study: light at night and breast cancer risk in Georgia Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication International Journal of Health Geographics Abbreviated Journal Int J Health Geogr  
  Volume 12 Issue Pages 23  
  Keywords Human Health; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Breast Neoplasms/*diagnosis/*epidemiology; Case-Control Studies; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Female; Georgia/epidemiology; Humans; Lighting/*adverse effects; Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis/epidemiology; Middle Aged; Registries; Risk Factors  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Literature has identified detrimental health effects from the indiscriminate use of artificial nighttime light. We examined the co-distribution of light at night (LAN) and breast cancer (BC) incidence in Georgia, with the goal to contribute to the accumulating evidence that exposure to LAN increases risk of BC. METHODS: Using Georgia Comprehensive Cancer Registry data (2000-2007), we conducted a case-referent study among 34,053 BC cases and 14,458 lung cancer referents. Individuals with lung cancer were used as referents to control for other cancer risk factors that may be associated with elevated LAN, such as air pollution, and since this cancer type was not previously associated with LAN or circadian rhythm disruption. DMSP-OLS Nighttime Light Time Series satellite images (1992-2007) were used to estimate LAN levels; low (0-20 watts per sterradian cm(2)), medium (21-41 watts per sterradian cm(2)), high (>41 watts per sterradian cm(2)). LAN levels were extracted for each year of exposure prior to case/referent diagnosis in ArcGIS. RESULTS: Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression models controlling for individual-level year of diagnosis, race, age at diagnosis, tumor grade, stage; and population-level determinants including metropolitan statistical area (MSA) status, births per 1,000 women aged 15-50, percentage of female smokers, MSA population mobility, and percentage of population over 16 in the labor force. We found that overall BC incidence was associated with high LAN exposure (OR = 1.12, 95% CI [1.04, 1.20]). When stratified by race, LAN exposure was associated with increased BC risk among whites (OR = 1.13, 95% CI [1.05, 1.22]), but not among blacks (OR = 1.02, 95% CI [0.82, 1.28]). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest positive associations between LAN and BC incidence, especially among whites. The consistency of our findings with previous studies suggests that there could be fundamental biological links between exposure to artificial LAN and increased BC incidence, although additional research using exposure metrics at the individual level is required to confirm or refute these findings.  
  Address Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA. secbauer@ufl.edu  
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  ISSN 1476-072X ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:23594790; PMCID:PMC3651306 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 718  
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Author (up) Boivin, D.B.; Boudreau, P.; James, F.O.; Kin, N.M.K.N.Y. url  doi
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  Title Photic resetting in night-shift work: impact on nurses' sleep Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int  
  Volume 29 Issue 5 Pages 619-628  
  Keywords Adaptation, Physiological; Adult; *Circadian Rhythm; *Darkness; Female; Humans; *Light; Male; Melatonin/metabolism; Middle Aged; *Nurses; Sleep/*physiology; Work Schedule Tolerance/*physiology  
  Abstract The objective of this study was to quantify daytime sleep in night-shift workers with and without an intervention designed to recover the normal relationship between the endogenous circadian pacemaker and the sleep/wake cycle. Workers of the treatment group received intermittent exposure to full-spectrum bright light during night shifts and wore dark goggles during the morning commute home. All workers maintained stable 8-h daytime sleep/darkness schedules. The authors found that workers of the treatment group had daytime sleep episodes that lasted 7.1 +/- .1 h (mean +/- SEM) versus 6.6 +/- .2 h for workers in the control group (p = .04). The increase in total sleep time co-occurred with a larger proportion of the melatonin secretory episode during daytime sleep in workers of the treatment group. The results of this study showed reestablishment of a phase angle that is comparable to that observed on a day-oriented schedule favors longer daytime sleep episodes in night-shift workers. (Author correspondence: diane.boivin@douglas.mcgill.ca ).  
  Address Centre for Study and Treatment of Circadian Rhythms, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. diane.boivin@douglas.mcgill.ca  
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  ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:22621359 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 144  
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Author (up) Cajochen, C.; Altanay-Ekici, S.; Munch, M.; Frey, S.; Knoblauch, V.; Wirz-Justice, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Evidence that the lunar cycle influences human sleep Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol  
  Volume 23 Issue 15 Pages 1485-1488  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Cross-Sectional Studies; Electroencephalography; Female; Humans; Hydrocortisone/analysis/metabolism; Male; Melatonin/analysis/metabolism; Middle Aged; Moon; Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation; Periodicity; Saliva/metabolism; Sleep/*physiology; Sleep Stages/physiology; Young Adult  
  Abstract Endogenous rhythms of circalunar periodicity ( approximately 29.5 days) and their underlying molecular and genetic basis have been demonstrated in a number of marine species [1, 2]. In contrast, there is a great deal of folklore but no consistent association of moon cycles with human physiology and behavior [3]. Here we show that subjective and objective measures of sleep vary according to lunar phase and thus may reflect circalunar rhythmicity in humans. To exclude confounders such as increased light at night or the potential bias in perception regarding a lunar influence on sleep, we retrospectively analyzed sleep structure, electroencephalographic activity during non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep, and secretion of the hormones melatonin and cortisol found under stringently controlled laboratory conditions in a cross-sectional setting. At no point during and after the study were volunteers or investigators aware of the a posteriori analysis relative to lunar phase. We found that around full moon, electroencephalogram (EEG) delta activity during NREM sleep, an indicator of deep sleep, decreased by 30%, time to fall asleep increased by 5 min, and EEG-assessed total sleep duration was reduced by 20 min. These changes were associated with a decrease in subjective sleep quality and diminished endogenous melatonin levels. This is the first reliable evidence that a lunar rhythm can modulate sleep structure in humans when measured under the highly controlled conditions of a circadian laboratory study protocol without time cues.  
  Address Centre for Chronobiology, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, 4012 Basel, Switzerland. christian.cajochen@upkbs.ch  
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  ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:23891110 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 140  
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