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Author Kamrowski, R.L.; Sutton, S.G.; Tobin, R.C.; Hamann, M.
Title Potential applicability of persuasive communication to light-glow reduction efforts: a case study of marine turtle conservation Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal Environ Manage
Volume (down) 54 Issue 3 Pages 583-595
Keywords Society; Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Animals; *Conservation of Natural Resources; Culture; Female; Humans; *Lighting; Male; Middle Aged; Persuasive Communication; Public Opinion; Queensland; Questionnaires; *Turtles; Young Adult
Abstract Artificial lighting along coastlines poses a significant threat to marine turtles due to the importance of light for their natural orientation at the nesting beach. Effective lighting management requires widespread support and participation, yet engaging the public with light reduction initiatives is difficult because benefits associated with artificial lighting are deeply entrenched within modern society. We present a case study from Queensland, Australia, where an active light-glow reduction campaign has been in place since 2008 to protect nesting turtles. Semi-structured questionnaires explored community beliefs about reducing light and evaluated the potential for using persuasive communication techniques based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to increase engagement with light reduction. Respondents (n = 352) had moderate to strong intentions to reduce light. TPB variables explained a significant proportion of variance in intention (multiple regression: R (2) = 0.54-0.69, P < 0.001), but adding a personal norm variable improved the model (R (2) = 0.73-0.79, P < 0.001). Significant differences in belief strength between campaign compliers and non-compliers suggest that targeting the beliefs reducing light leads to “increased protection of local turtles” (P < 0.01) and/or “benefits to the local economy” (P < 0.05), in combination with an appeal to personal norms, would produce the strongest persuasion potential for future communications. Selective legislation and commitment strategies may be further useful strategies to increase community light reduction. As artificial light continues to gain attention as a pollutant, our methods and findings will be of interest to anyone needing to manage public artificial lighting.
Address School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, 4811, Australia, ruth.kamrowski(at)my.jcu.edu.au
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0364-152X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:24957580 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1283
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Author Ashkenazi, I. E.; Reinberg, A,; Bicakova-Rocher, A.; Ticher, A.
Title The genetic background of individual variations of circadian-rhythm periods in healthy human adults. Type Journal Article
Year 1993 Publication American Journal of Human Genetics Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 52 Issue 6 Pages 1250–1259
Keywords Human Health; Adult; Body Temperature; Bronchi; Bronchi: physiology; Circadian Rhythm; Circadian Rhythm: genetics; Female; Genetic Variation; Hand; Hand: physiology; Heart Rate; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Sex Factors; Sleep
Abstract As a group phenomenon, human variables exhibit a rhythm with a period (tau) equal to 24 h. However, healthy human adults may differ from one another with regard to the persistence of the 24-h periods of a set of variables' rhythms within a given individual. Such an internal desynchronization (or individual circadian dyschronism) was documented during isolation experiments without time cues, both in the present study involving 78 male shift workers and in 20 males and 19 females living in a natural setting. Circadian rhythms of sleep-wake cycles, oral temperature, grip strength of both hands, and heart rate were recorded, and power-spectra analyses of individual time series of about 15 days were used to quantify the rhythm period of each variable. The period of the sleep-wake cycle seldom differed from 24 h, while rhythm periods of the other variables exhibited a trimodal distribution (tau = 24 h, tau > 24 h, tau < 24 h). Among the temperature rhythm periods which were either < 24 h or > 24 h, none was detected between 23.2 and 24 h or between 24 and 24.8 h. Furthermore, the deviations from the 24-h period were predominantly grouped in multiples of +/- 0.8 h. Similar results were obtained when the rhythm periods of hand grip strength were analyzed (for each hand separately). In addition, the distribution of grip strength rhythm periods of the left hand exhibited a gender-related difference. These results suggested the presence of genetically controlled variability. Consequently, the distribution pattern of the periods was analyzed to elucidate its compatibility with a genetic control consisting of either a two-allele system, a multiple-allele system, or a polygenic system. The analysis resulted in structuring a model which integrates the function of a constitutive (essential) gene which produces the exact 24-h period (the Dian domain) with a set of (inducible) polygenes, the alleles of which, contribute identical time entities to the period. The time entities which affected the rhythm periods of the variables examined were in the magnitude of +/- 0.8 h. Such an assembly of genes may create periods ranging from 20 to 28 h (the Circadian domain). The model was termed by us “The Dian-Circadian Model.” This model can also be used to explain the beat phenomena in biological rhythms, the presence of 7-d and 30-d periods, and interindividual differences in sensitivity of rhythm characteristics (phase shifts, synchronization, etc.) to external (and environmental) factors.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 582
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Author Wood, J.M.; Tyrrell, R.A.; Carberry, T.P.
Title Limitations in drivers' ability to recognize pedestrians at night Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Human Factors Abbreviated Journal Hum Factors
Volume (down) 47 Issue 3 Pages 644-653
Keywords Vision; Public Safety; Adult; Age Factors; Aged; *Automobile Driving/psychology; Clothing; *Darkness; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Reaction Time; Task Performance and Analysis; Visual Perception
Abstract This study quantified drivers' ability to recognize pedestrians at night. Ten young and 10 older participants drove around a closed road circuit and responded when they first recognized a pedestrian. Four pedestrian clothing and two beam conditions were tested. Results demonstrate that driver age, clothing configuration, headlamp beam, and glare all significantly affect performance. Drivers recognized only 5% of pedestrians in the most challenging condition (low beams, black clothing, glare), whereas drivers recognized 100% of the pedestrians who wore retroreflective clothing configured to depict biological motion (no glare). In the absence of glare, mean recognition distances varied from 0.0 m (older drivers, low beam, black clothing) to 220 m (722 feet; younger drivers, high beam, retroreflective biomotion). These data provide new motivation to minimize interactions between vehicular and pedestrian traffic at night and suggest garment designs to maximize pedestrian conspicuity when these interactions are unavoidable.
Address Center for Eye Research, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. j.wood@qut.edu.au
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0018-7208 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:16435703 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2804
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Author Knutsson, A.; Alfredsson, L.; Karlsson, B.; Akerstedt, T.; Fransson, E.I.; Westerholm, P.; Westerlund, H.
Title Breast cancer among shift workers: results of the WOLF longitudinal cohort study Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health Abbreviated Journal Scand J Work Environ Health
Volume (down) 39 Issue 2 Pages 170-177
Keywords Adult; Aged; Breast Neoplasms/*epidemiology/etiology; Circadian Rhythm; Female; Humans; Incidence; Longitudinal Studies; Middle Aged; Proportional Hazards Models; Risk Assessment; Sweden/epidemiology; *Work Schedule Tolerance; oncogenesis
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether shift work (with or without night work) is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. METHODS: The population consisted of 4036 women. Data were obtained from WOLF (Work, Lipids, and Fibrinogen), a longitudinal cohort study. Information about baseline characteristics was based on questionnaire responses and medical examination. Cancer incidence from baseline to follow-up was obtained from the national cancer registry. Two exposure groups were identified: shift work with and without night work. The group with day work only was used as the reference group in the analysis. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate relative risk. RESULTS: In total, 94 women developed breast cancer during follow-up. The average follow-up time was 12.4 years. The hazard ratio for breast cancer was 1.23 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.70-2.17] for shifts without night work and 2.02 (95% CI 1.03-3.95) for shifts with night work. When including only women <60 years of age, the risk estimates were 1.18 (95% CI 0.67-2.07) for shifts without night work, and 2.15 (95% CI 1.10-4.21) for shifts with night work. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate an increased risk for breast cancer among women who work shifts that includes night work.
Address Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall. Sweden. Anders.Knutsson@miun.se
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0355-3140 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23007867 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 154
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Author Landers, J.A.; Tamblyn, D.; Perriam, D.
Title Effect of a blue-light-blocking intraocular lens on the quality of sleep Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery Abbreviated Journal J Cataract Refract Surg
Volume (down) 35 Issue 1 Pages 83-88
Keywords Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Female; Humans; *Lens Implantation, Intraocular; *Lenses, Intraocular; Light; Male; *Phacoemulsification; Prosthesis Design; Questionnaires; Sleep/*physiology; blue light; sleep
Abstract PURPOSE: To evaluate whether implantation of a blue-light-blocking intraocular lens (IOL) affects sleep quality. SETTING: Repatriation General Hospital, Adelaide, Australia. METHODS: This study comprised patients who had bilateral cataract surgery during the preceding 12 months with implantation of a conventional SI40NB IOL or an AcrySof Natural SN60WF blue-light-blocking IOL. Patients were contacted by telephone at least 6 months after second-eye surgery, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire was administered. Results were compared between groups. RESULTS: Of the 49 patients, 31 received conventional IOLs and 18, blue-light-blocking IOLs. The mean age of the patients was 80 years +/- 8.1 (SD). The median PSQI score was 6 (interquartile range 3 to 8). There were no statistically significant differences in PSQI scores between the 2 IOL groups (P = .65). This remained true after adjustment for sex, age, medication, and time since surgery. CONCLUSION: The blue-light-blocking IOL had no effect on the sleep quality of patients, indicating that these IOLs might serve as an alternative to conventional IOLs without a detrimental effect on circadian rhythm.
Address Department of Ophthalmology, Repatriation General Hospital, Adelaide, Australia. john.landers@bigpond.com
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0886-3350 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:19101429 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 288
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