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Author Rojas, L.M.; McNeil, R.; Cabana, T.; Lachapelle, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Diurnal and Nocturnal Visual Capabilities in Shorebirds as a Function of Their Feeding Strategies Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Brain, Behavior and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Brain Behav Evol  
  Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 29-43  
  Keywords foraging; Catoptrophorus semipalmatus; Territorial Willets; Black-winged Stilt; Himantopus himantopus; Scolopax minor; Limnodromus griseus; birds; Wilson's Plover; Charadrius wilsonia; Short-billed Dowitcher; Limnodromus griseus  
  Abstract Some shorebird species forage with the same feeding strategy at night and during daytime, e.g. visual pecking in the Wilson's Plover (Charadrius wilsonia) or tactile probing in the Short-billed Dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus). The Limnodromus griseus (Scolopax minor) uses tactile probing, by day and by night, but sometimes pecks for insects during daytime. The Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus) is a visual pecker, both by day and by night, and sometimes forages tactilely on windy (agitated water surface) moonless nights. Territorial Willets (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus) are visual peckers during daylight and on moonlight conditions but switch to tactile feeding under lower light conditions. It could be postulated that some shorebird species would switch from visual feeding during daytime to tactile foraging at night because they have poor night vision compared to species that are always sight foragers irrespective of the time of the day. This issue was examined by comparing retinal structure and function in the above species. Electroretinograms (ERGs) were obtained at different light intensities from anesthetized birds, and the retinae were processed for histological observations. Based on ERGs, retinal sensitivity, and rod:cone ratios, both plovers and stilts are well adapted for nocturnal vision. Although they have low rod density compared to that of stilts and plovers, Willets and woodcocks have a scotopic retinal sensitivity similar to that of stilts and plovers but rank midway between plovers and dowitchers for the b-wave amplitude. Dowitchers have the lowest scotopic b-wave amplitude and retinal sensitivity and appear the least well adapted for night vision. Based on photopic ERGs and cone densities, although stilts, Willets and dowitchers appear as well adapted for daytime vision, plovers occupy the last rank of all species examined. Compared to the nighttime tactile feeders and those that switch from daytime visual pecking to tactile feeding at night, nighttime sight feeders have a superior rod function and, consequently, potentially superior nocturnal visual capabilities.  
  Address (up)  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-8977 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 47  
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Author Jetz, W.; Steffen, J.; Linsenmair, K.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of light and prey availability on nocturnal, lunar and seasonal activity of tropical nightjars Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Oikos Abbreviated Journal Oikos  
  Volume 103 Issue 3 Pages 627-639  
  Keywords foraging; Caprimulgus climacurus; birds; nightjars; standard-winged nightjar; Macrodipteryx longipennis; long-tailed nightjar  
  Abstract Nightjars and their allies represent the only major group of visually hunting aerial insectivores with a crepuscular and/or nocturnal lifestyle. Our purpose was to examine how both light regime and prey abundance in the tropics, where periods of twilight are extremely short, but nightjar diversity is high, affect activity across different temporal scales. We studied two nightjar species in West African bush savannah, standard-winged nightjars Macrodipteryx longipennis Shaw and long-tailed nightjars Caprimulgus climacurus Vieillot. We measured biomass of potential prey available using a vehicle mounted trap and found that it was highest at dusk and significantly lower at dawn and during the night. Based on direct observations, both nightjars exhibit the most intense foraging behaviour at dusk, less intense foraging at dawn and least at night, as predicted by both prey abundance and conditions for visual prey detection. Nocturnal foraging was positively correlated with lunar light levels and ceased below about 0.03 mW m−2. Over the course of a lunar cycle, nocturnal light availability varied markedly, while prey abundance remained constant at dusk and at night was slightly higher at full moon. Both species increased twilight foraging activity during new moon periods, compensating for the shorter nocturnal foraging window at that time. Seasonally, the pattern of nocturnal light availability was similar throughout the year, while prey availability peaked shortly after onset of the wet season and then slowly decreased over the following four months. The courtship and breeding phenology of both species was timed to coincide with the peak in aerial insect abundance, suggesting that prey availability rather than direct abiotic factors act as constraints, at least at the seasonal level. Our findings illustrate the peculiar constraints on visually orienting aerial nocturnal insectivores in general and tropical nightjars in particular and highlight the resulting nocturnal, lunar and seasonal allocation of activities.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0030-1299 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 48  
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Author Buchanan, B.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of enhanced lighting on the behaviour of nocturnal frogs Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication Animal Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Animal Behaviour  
  Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 893-899  
  Keywords animals; amphibians; frogs; grey treefrog; Hyla chrysoscelis; foraging; infrared  
  Abstract Biologists studying anuran amphibians usually assume that artificial, visible light does not affect the behaviour of nocturnal frogs. This assumption was tested in a laboratory experiment. The foraging behaviour of grey treefrogs, Hyla chrysoscelis, was compared under four lighting conditions: ambient light (equivalent to bright moonlight, 0·003 lx), red-filtered light (4·1 lx), low-intensity 'white' light (3·8 lx), and high-intensity 'white' light (12·0 lx). The treatments were chosen to correspond to standard methods of field observation of frog behaviour. The foraging behaviour of frogs in the four treatments was observed using infra-red light that was invisible to the frogs. The ability of the frogs to detect, and subsequently consume prey was significantly reduced under all of the enhanced light treatments relative to the ambient light treatment. Thus, the use of artificial light, within the visible spectrum of the frogs' eyes, can influence the outcome of nocturnal behavioural observations. These results lead to the recommendation that anuran biologists use infra-red or light amplification devices when changes in frogs' visual capabilities may influence the conclusions drawn from a study.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 72  
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Author Topping, M.G.; Millar, J.S.; Goddard, J.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effects of moonlight on nocturnal activity in bushy-tailed wood rats (Neotoma cinerea) Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Canadian Journal of Zoology Abbreviated Journal Can. J. Zool.  
  Volume 77 Issue 3 Pages 480-485  
  Keywords animals; mammals; rats; bushy-tailed wood rat; Neotoma cinerea; Canada; foraging; reproduction; moonlight; predation risk  
  Abstract The nocturnal activity of bushy-tailed wood rats (Neotoma cinerea) was monitored for two breeding seasons (1993 and 1994) in the Canadian Rockies. Radiotelemetry was used under three levels of moonlight to assess two measures of nocturnal activity: (i) the proportion of animals crossing rocky outcrops and entering the surrounding forest to forage, search for mates, or both, and (ii) the distance moved from the den site while in the forest. Males and females exhibited significant differences among moonlight levels, with greater activity on nights of intermediate-level moonlight and less activity on nights with bright or dark moonlight. There was no difference in the proportions of males and females active at any moonlight level. The distances moved from the den did not differ among moonlight levels for either males or females. Having traversed the rocks and entered the forest, individuals moved similar distances regardless of light level. These results suggest that wood rats respond to moonlight only when making the decision to cross rocks and enter the forest. This behaviour presumably serves to counteract the increased risk of predation on bright nights.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0008-4301 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 88  
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Author Saldaña-Vázquez, R.A.; Munguía-Rosas, M.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Lunar phobia in bats and its ecological correlates: A meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Mammalian Biology – Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde Abbreviated Journal Mammalian Biology – Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde  
  Volume 78 Issue 3 Pages 216-219  
  Keywords Chiroptera; Foraging activity; Foraging habitat; Latitude; Moonlight; mammals; bats; animals  
  Abstract Animals show several behavioral strategies to reduce predation risks. Presumably, moonlight avoidance is a strategy used by some nocturnal species to reduce the risk of predation. In bats, some research indicates that foraging activity is negatively correlated with moonlight intensity, a phenomenon better known as lunar phobia. However, the currently available evidence is contradictory because some bat species reduce their activity during nights with more moonlight while the opposite occurs in other species. We quantitatively evaluated the strength and direction of the relationship between moonlight intensity and bat activity using a meta-analysis. We also looked at some ecological correlates of lunar phobia in bats. Specifically, we examined foraging habitat and latitude as potential moderators of the size of the lunar phobia effect. Our results show that, regardless of the method used to evaluate bat activity, the overall relationship between moonlight intensity and bat activity is significant and negative (r = −0.22). Species foraging on the surface of the water (piscivores and insectivores; r = −0.83) and forest canopy species (i.e., big frugivores; r = −0.30) are more affected by moonlight than those with different foraging habitats (understory, subcanopy, open air). Latitude was positively correlated with lunar phobia (r = 0.023). The stronger lunar phobia for bats foraging on the water surface and in the forest canopy may suggest that the risk of predation is greater where moonlight penetrates more easily. The significant effect of latitude as a moderator of lunar phobia suggests that there is a weak geographic pattern, with this phobia slightly more common in tropical bats than in temperate species.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1616-5047 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 97  
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