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Author Saldaña-Vázquez, R.A.; Munguía-Rosas, M.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Lunar phobia in bats and its ecological correlates: A meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Mammalian Biology – Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde Abbreviated Journal Mammalian Biology – Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde  
  Volume (down) 78 Issue 3 Pages 216-219  
  Keywords Chiroptera; Foraging activity; Foraging habitat; Latitude; Moonlight; mammals; bats; animals  
  Abstract Animals show several behavioral strategies to reduce predation risks. Presumably, moonlight avoidance is a strategy used by some nocturnal species to reduce the risk of predation. In bats, some research indicates that foraging activity is negatively correlated with moonlight intensity, a phenomenon better known as lunar phobia. However, the currently available evidence is contradictory because some bat species reduce their activity during nights with more moonlight while the opposite occurs in other species. We quantitatively evaluated the strength and direction of the relationship between moonlight intensity and bat activity using a meta-analysis. We also looked at some ecological correlates of lunar phobia in bats. Specifically, we examined foraging habitat and latitude as potential moderators of the size of the lunar phobia effect. Our results show that, regardless of the method used to evaluate bat activity, the overall relationship between moonlight intensity and bat activity is significant and negative (r = −0.22). Species foraging on the surface of the water (piscivores and insectivores; r = −0.83) and forest canopy species (i.e., big frugivores; r = −0.30) are more affected by moonlight than those with different foraging habitats (understory, subcanopy, open air). Latitude was positively correlated with lunar phobia (r = 0.023). The stronger lunar phobia for bats foraging on the water surface and in the forest canopy may suggest that the risk of predation is greater where moonlight penetrates more easily. The significant effect of latitude as a moderator of lunar phobia suggests that there is a weak geographic pattern, with this phobia slightly more common in tropical bats than in temperate species.  
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  ISSN 1616-5047 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 97  
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Author Topping, M.G.; Millar, J.S.; Goddard, J.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effects of moonlight on nocturnal activity in bushy-tailed wood rats (Neotoma cinerea) Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Canadian Journal of Zoology Abbreviated Journal Can. J. Zool.  
  Volume (down) 77 Issue 3 Pages 480-485  
  Keywords animals; mammals; rats; bushy-tailed wood rat; Neotoma cinerea; Canada; foraging; reproduction; moonlight; predation risk  
  Abstract The nocturnal activity of bushy-tailed wood rats (Neotoma cinerea) was monitored for two breeding seasons (1993 and 1994) in the Canadian Rockies. Radiotelemetry was used under three levels of moonlight to assess two measures of nocturnal activity: (i) the proportion of animals crossing rocky outcrops and entering the surrounding forest to forage, search for mates, or both, and (ii) the distance moved from the den site while in the forest. Males and females exhibited significant differences among moonlight levels, with greater activity on nights of intermediate-level moonlight and less activity on nights with bright or dark moonlight. There was no difference in the proportions of males and females active at any moonlight level. The distances moved from the den did not differ among moonlight levels for either males or females. Having traversed the rocks and entered the forest, individuals moved similar distances regardless of light level. These results suggest that wood rats respond to moonlight only when making the decision to cross rocks and enter the forest. This behaviour presumably serves to counteract the increased risk of predation on bright nights.  
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  ISSN 0008-4301 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 88  
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Author Bará, S.; Tilve, V.; Nievas, M.; Sanchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Zernike power spectra of clear and cloudy light-polluted urban night skies Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Applied Optics Abbreviated Journal Appl. Opt.  
  Volume (down) 54 Issue 13 Pages 4120-4129  
  Keywords Skyglow; artificial ligh at night; light pollution; Zernike; power spectrum; atmospheric optics; imaging systems; image analysis  
  Abstract The Zernike power spectra of the all-sky night brightness distributions of clear and cloudy nights are computed using a modal projection approach. The results obtained in the B, V and R Johnson-Cousins' photometric bands during a one-year campaign of observations at a light-polluted urban site show that these spectra can be described by simple power laws with exponents close to -3 for clear nights and -2 for cloudy ones. The second-moment matrices of the Zernike coefficients show relevant correlations between modes. The multiplicative role of the cloud cover, that contributes to a significant increase of the brightness of the urban night sky in comparison with the values obtained in clear nights, is described in the Zernike space.  
  Address Area de Optica, Dept. Fisica Aplicada. Facultade de Fisica / Facultade de Optica e Optometría Universidade de Santiago de Compostela Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain; salva.bara@usc.es  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Optical Society of America Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1156  
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Author Rojas, L.M.; McNeil, R.; Cabana, T.; Lachapelle, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Diurnal and Nocturnal Visual Capabilities in Shorebirds as a Function of Their Feeding Strategies Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Brain, Behavior and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Brain Behav Evol  
  Volume (down) 53 Issue 1 Pages 29-43  
  Keywords foraging; Catoptrophorus semipalmatus; Territorial Willets; Black-winged Stilt; Himantopus himantopus; Scolopax minor; Limnodromus griseus; birds; Wilson's Plover; Charadrius wilsonia; Short-billed Dowitcher; Limnodromus griseus  
  Abstract Some shorebird species forage with the same feeding strategy at night and during daytime, e.g. visual pecking in the Wilson's Plover (Charadrius wilsonia) or tactile probing in the Short-billed Dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus). The Limnodromus griseus (Scolopax minor) uses tactile probing, by day and by night, but sometimes pecks for insects during daytime. The Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus) is a visual pecker, both by day and by night, and sometimes forages tactilely on windy (agitated water surface) moonless nights. Territorial Willets (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus) are visual peckers during daylight and on moonlight conditions but switch to tactile feeding under lower light conditions. It could be postulated that some shorebird species would switch from visual feeding during daytime to tactile foraging at night because they have poor night vision compared to species that are always sight foragers irrespective of the time of the day. This issue was examined by comparing retinal structure and function in the above species. Electroretinograms (ERGs) were obtained at different light intensities from anesthetized birds, and the retinae were processed for histological observations. Based on ERGs, retinal sensitivity, and rod:cone ratios, both plovers and stilts are well adapted for nocturnal vision. Although they have low rod density compared to that of stilts and plovers, Willets and woodcocks have a scotopic retinal sensitivity similar to that of stilts and plovers but rank midway between plovers and dowitchers for the b-wave amplitude. Dowitchers have the lowest scotopic b-wave amplitude and retinal sensitivity and appear the least well adapted for night vision. Based on photopic ERGs and cone densities, although stilts, Willets and dowitchers appear as well adapted for daytime vision, plovers occupy the last rank of all species examined. Compared to the nighttime tactile feeders and those that switch from daytime visual pecking to tactile feeding at night, nighttime sight feeders have a superior rod function and, consequently, potentially superior nocturnal visual capabilities.  
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  ISSN 0006-8977 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 47  
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Author Shen, J.; Tower, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of light on aging and longevity Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Ageing Research Reviews Abbreviated Journal Ageing Res Rev  
  Volume (down) 53 Issue Pages 100913  
  Keywords Human Health; Review; Aging; longevity  
  Abstract Increasing evidence suggests an important role for light in regulation of aging and longevity. UV radiation is a mutagen that can promote aging and decrease longevity. In contrast, NIR light has shown protective effects in animal disease models. In invertebrates, visible light can shorten or extend lifespan, depending on the intensity and wavelength composition. Visible light also impacts human health, including retina function, sleep, cancer and psychiatric disorders. Possible mechanisms of visible light include: controlling circadian rhythms, inducing oxidative stress, and acting through the retina to affect neuronal circuits and systems. Changes in artificial lighting (e.g., LEDs) may have implications for human health. It will be important to further explore the mechanisms of how light affects aging and longevity, and how light affects human health.  
  Address Molecular and Computational Biology Program, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA 90089-2910, United States  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 1568-1637 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31154014 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2514  
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