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Author Schulte-Römer, N.; Meier, J.; Dannemann, E.; Söding, M.
Title Lighting Professionals versus Light Pollution Experts? Investigating Views on an Emerging Environmental Concern Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability
Volume 11 Issue 6 Pages (down) 1696
Keywords Lighting; Society
Abstract Concerns about the potential negative effects of artificial light at night on humans, flora and fauna, were originally raised by astronomers and environmentalists. Yet, we observe a growing interest in what is called light pollution among the general public and in the lighting field. Although lighting professionals are often critical of calling light ‘pollution’, they increasingly acknowledge the problem and are beginning to act accordingly. Are those who illuminate joining forces with those who take a critical stance towards artificial light at night? We explore this question in more detail based on the results of a non-representative worldwide expert survey. In our analysis, we distinguish between “lighting professionals” with occupational backgrounds linked to lighting design and the lighting industry, and “light pollution experts” with mostly astronomy- and environment-related professional backgrounds, and explore their opposing and shared views vis-à-vis issues of light pollution. Our analysis reveals that despite seemingly conflicting interests, lighting professionals and light pollution experts largely agree on the problem definition and problem-solving approaches. However, we see diverging views regarding potential obstacles to light pollution mitigation and associated governance challenges.
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2278
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Author Davies, Thomas W; Bennie, Jonathan; Inger, Richard; Hempel de Ibarra, Natalie; Gaston, Kevin J
Title Artificial light pollution: are shifting spectral signatures changing the balance of species interactions? Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Global Change Biologyology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 19 Issue 5 Pages (down) 1417-1423
Keywords animals; ecosystems; species interaction; human vision
Abstract Technological developments in municipal lighting are altering the spectral characteristics of artificially lit habitats. Little is yet known of the biological consequences of such changes, although a variety of animal behaviours are dependent on detecting the spectral signature of light reflected from objects. Using previously published wavelengths of peak visual pigment absorbance, we compared how four alternative street lamp technologies affect the visual abilities of 213 species of arachnid, insect, bird, reptile and mammal by producing different wavelength ranges of light to which they are visually sensitive. The proportion of the visually detectable region of the light spectrum emitted by each lamp was compared to provide an indication of how different technologies are likely to facilitate visually guided behaviours such as detecting objects in the environment. Compared to narrow spectrum lamps, broad spectrum technologies enable animals to detect objects that reflect light over more of the spectrum to which they are sensitive and, importantly, create greater disparities in this ability between major taxonomic groups. The introduction of broad spectrum street lamps could therefore alter the balance of species interactions in the artificially lit environment.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1584
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Author Alves, T.
Title Art, Light and Landscape New Agendas for Urban Development Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication European Planning Studies Abbreviated Journal European Planning Studies
Volume 15 Issue 9 Pages (down) 1247-1260
Keywords Society
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ISSN 0965-4313 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 985
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Author Raiewski, E.E.; Elliott, J.A.; Evans, J.A.; Glickman, G.L.; Gorman, M.R.
Title Twice daily melatonin peaks in Siberian but not Syrian hamsters under 24 h light:dark:light:dark cycles Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int
Volume 29 Issue 9 Pages (down) 1206-1215
Keywords Animals; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Cricetinae; Male; Melatonin/blood/*secretion; Mesocricetus/blood/*physiology; Motor Activity/physiology; Phodopus/blood/*physiology; Photoperiod; Species Specificity
Abstract The daily pattern of blood-borne melatonin varies seasonally under the control of a multi-oscillator circadian pacemaker. Here we examine patterns of melatonin secretion and locomotor activity in Siberian and Syrian hamsters entrained to bimodal LDLD8:4:8:4 and LD20:4 lighting schedules that facilitate novel temporal arrangements of component circadian oscillators. Under LDLD, both species robustly bifurcated wheel-running activity in distinct day scotophase (DS) and night scotophase (NS) bouts. Siberian hamsters displayed significant melatonin increases during each scotophase in LDLD, and in the single daily scotophase of LD20:4. The bimodal melatonin secretion pattern persisted in acutely extended 16 h scotophases. Syrian hamsters, in contrast, showed no significant increases in plasma melatonin during either scotophase of LDLD8:4:8:4 or in LD20:4. In this species, detectable levels were observed only when the DS of LDLD was acutely extended to yield 16 h of darkness. Established species differences in the phase lag of nocturnal melatonin secretion relative to activity onset may underlie the above contrast: In non-bifurcated entrainment to 24 h LD cycles, Siberian hamsters show increased melatonin secretion within approximately 2 h after activity onset, whereas in Syrian hamsters, detectable melatonin secretion phase lags activity onset and the L/D transition by at least 4 h. The present results provide new evidence indicating multi-oscillator regulation of the waveform of melatonin secretion, specifically, the circadian control of the onset, offset and duration of nocturnal secretion.
Address Department of Psychology, and Center for Chronobiology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0109, USA. eraiewski@ucsd.edu
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:23003567 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 85
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Author Henderson, J.V.; Storeygard, A.; Weil, D.N.
Title Measuring Economic Growth From Outer Space Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication The American Economic Review Abbreviated Journal Am Econ Rev
Volume 102 Issue 2 Pages (down) 994-1028
Keywords satellite data; remote sensing; economics; social science
Abstract GDP growth is often measured poorly for countries and rarely measured at all for cities or subnational regions. We propose a readily available proxy: satellite data on lights at night. We develop a statistical framework that uses lights growth to augment existing income growth measures, under the assumption that measurement error in using observed light as an indicator of income is uncorrelated with measurement error in national income accounts. For countries with good national income accounts data, information on growth of lights is of marginal value in estimating the true growth rate of income, while for countries with the worst national income accounts, the optimal estimate of true income growth is a composite with roughly equal weights. Among poor-data countries, our new estimate of average annual growth differs by as much as 3 percentage points from official data. Lights data also allow for measurement of income growth in sub- and supranational regions. As an application, we examine growth in Sub Saharan African regions over the last 17 years. We find that real incomes in non-coastal areas have grown faster by 1/3 of an annual percentage point than coastal areas; non-malarial areas have grown faster than malarial ones by 1/3 to 2/3 annual percent points; and primate city regions have grown no faster than hinterland areas. Such applications point toward a research program in which “empirical growth” need no longer be synonymous with “national income accounts.”
Address National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher American Economic Association Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0002-8282 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:25067841; PMCID:PMC4108272 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 364
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