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Author Andre, J.; Owens, D.A.
Title The Twilight Envelope: A User-Centered Approach to Describing Roadway Illumination at Night Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Abbreviated Journal
Volume 43 Issue 4 Pages (down) 620-630
Keywords Society
Abstract Visual recognition functions, such as acuity and contrast sensitivity, deteriorate rapidly over the declining luminances found during civil twilight. Thus civil twilight, a critical part of the transition between daylight and darkness, represents lighting conditions that may be useful to describe artificial illumination. Automotive headlamps project a three-dimensional beam that ranges from illumination levels comparable to daylight at the vehicle to the dark limit of civil twilight (3.3 1x) at some distance ahead. This twilight envelope is characterized as a distance beyond which foveal visual functions are severely impaired, and thus it provides a general, functional description of the useful extent of the headlamp beam. This user-centered approach to describing illumination is useful for characterizing visibility when driving at night or in other artificially lit environments. This paper discusses the twilight envelope approach and its application to intervehicle variations in headlamp systems. Actual or potential applications of this research include user-centered description of artificial illumination and driver/pedestrian safety education.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 988
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Author Stone, T.
Title The Value of Darkness: A Moral Framework for Urban Nighttime Lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Science and Engineering Ethics Abbreviated Journal Sci Eng Ethics
Volume 24 Issue 2 Pages (down) 607-628
Keywords Darkness; Society
Abstract The adverse effects of artificial nighttime lighting, known as light pollution, are emerging as an important environmental issue. To address these effects, current scientific research focuses mainly on identifying what is bad or undesirable about certain types and uses of lighting at night. This paper adopts a value-sensitive approach, focusing instead on what is good about darkness at night. In doing so, it offers a first comprehensive analysis of the environmental value of darkness at night from within applied ethics. A design for values orientation is utilized to conceptualize, define, and categorize the ways in which value is derived from darkness. Nine values are identified and categorized via their type of good, temporal outlook, and spatial characteristics. Furthermore, these nine values are translated into prima facie moral obligations that should be incorporated into future design choices, policy-making, and innovations to nighttime lighting. Thus, the value of darkness is analyzed with the practical goal of informing future decision-making about urban nighttime lighting.
Address Ethics and Philosophy of Technology Section, Delft University of Technology, Jaffalaan 5, 2628 BX, Delft, The Netherlands. t.w.stone@tudelft.nl
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 1353-3452 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:28597220; PMCID:PMC5876417 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2225
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Author Edensor, T.; Falconer, E.
Title Dans Le Noir? Eating in the dark: sensation and conviviality in a lightless place Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Cultural Geographies Abbreviated Journal
Volume 22 Issue 4 Pages (down) 601-618
Keywords Society; Darkness
Abstract Drawing on ethnographic interviews with customers, this paper looks at the experience of dining at Dans le Noir?, a restaurant in London where eating is carried out in complete darkness. As an exemplary gastro-tourist site within the expanding leisure economy at which sensory alterity is sought, we argue that the transformation of the usual unreflexive habits of sensing while dining offer opportunities to encounter difference and reflect upon our culturally located ways of sensing the world. In focusing upon the altered experience of apprehending space, eating and socialising in the absence of light, we contend that this dining experience offers broader suggestions about how we might reconsider the qualities and potentialities of darkness, a condition which has been historically feared and reviled in the west.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 740
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Author Kamrowski, R.L.; Sutton, S.G.; Tobin, R.C.; Hamann, M.
Title Potential applicability of persuasive communication to light-glow reduction efforts: a case study of marine turtle conservation Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal Environ Manage
Volume 54 Issue 3 Pages (down) 583-595
Keywords Society; Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Animals; *Conservation of Natural Resources; Culture; Female; Humans; *Lighting; Male; Middle Aged; Persuasive Communication; Public Opinion; Queensland; Questionnaires; *Turtles; Young Adult
Abstract Artificial lighting along coastlines poses a significant threat to marine turtles due to the importance of light for their natural orientation at the nesting beach. Effective lighting management requires widespread support and participation, yet engaging the public with light reduction initiatives is difficult because benefits associated with artificial lighting are deeply entrenched within modern society. We present a case study from Queensland, Australia, where an active light-glow reduction campaign has been in place since 2008 to protect nesting turtles. Semi-structured questionnaires explored community beliefs about reducing light and evaluated the potential for using persuasive communication techniques based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to increase engagement with light reduction. Respondents (n = 352) had moderate to strong intentions to reduce light. TPB variables explained a significant proportion of variance in intention (multiple regression: R (2) = 0.54-0.69, P < 0.001), but adding a personal norm variable improved the model (R (2) = 0.73-0.79, P < 0.001). Significant differences in belief strength between campaign compliers and non-compliers suggest that targeting the beliefs reducing light leads to “increased protection of local turtles” (P < 0.01) and/or “benefits to the local economy” (P < 0.05), in combination with an appeal to personal norms, would produce the strongest persuasion potential for future communications. Selective legislation and commitment strategies may be further useful strategies to increase community light reduction. As artificial light continues to gain attention as a pollutant, our methods and findings will be of interest to anyone needing to manage public artificial lighting.
Address School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, 4811, Australia, ruth.kamrowski(at)my.jcu.edu.au
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Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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ISSN 0364-152X ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:24957580 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1283
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Author Cucchiella, F.; De Berardinis, P.; Koh, L.; Rotilio, M.
Title Planning restoration of a historical landscape: A case study for integrating a sustainable street lighting system with conservation of historical values Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Journal of Cleaner Production Abbreviated Journal Journal of Cleaner Production
Volume 165 Issue Pages (down) 579-588
Keywords Planning; Lighting; Society
Abstract Issues relating to the illumination of historical minor centers have taken on increasing significance in debates on urban rehabilitation. Interventions must ensure balance with the surrounding environment whilst implementing high-efficiency, energy-environment systems, and enhance architectural structures. The research presented in this paper aims to identify appropriate strategies and effective criteria for lighting design in historical centers. The methodology developed is based on transcalar analysis and has been applied to a village in the Abruzzo Region (Italy). The methodology involved surveys carried out in the urban context together with up-to-date and detailed analyses aimed at highlighting the criticalities and potentialities of the village in the case study. This allowed the elaboration of intervention strategies applied to two different areas: one within the historical nucleus of the village and the other in a peripheral area. This research has contributed to enriching the current debate on so-called “inland areas”, including developing new ways to benefit from the special characteristics of these areas and implementing more sustainable action.
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ISSN 0959-6526 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1687
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